At the end of August 2012 the Polish Parliament enacted the Act on State Marine Accident Investigation Commission, which regulates its organization and operation. The Act transposed, within its regulation, Directive 2009/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 establishing the fundamental principles governing the investigation of accidents in the maritime transport sector and is based on the Code of the International Standards and Recommended Practices for a Safety Investigation into a Marine Casualty or Marine Incident (Casualty Investigation Code), issued by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) together with amendments to the SOLAS Convention. The purpose of the Directive, as well as the Casualty Investigation Code, is to improve maritime safety and the prevention of pollution by ships by facilitating the expeditious holding of safety investigations and proper analysis of marine casualties and incidents in order to determine their causes. The EU Parliament obliged, through the Directive, the EU Member States to ensure that the safety investigations are conducted under the responsibility of an impartial permanent investigative body, endowed with the necessary powers, and by suitably qualified investigators, competent in matters relating to marine casualties and incidents. This impartial permanent investigative body had been named in Poland: Państwowa Komisja Badania Wypadków Morskich [the State Marine accident Investigation Commission] and began its operation in May 2013 upon the appointment, by the Minister of Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy, of the third one of five statutory members of the Commission. Since the beginning of its activity the Commission has initiated 77 safety investigations, prepared and adopted 272 resolutions, published 53 safety reports and issued more than 30 safety recommendations. The establishment and activity of the Commission leads to greater awareness of casualty causation and has a positive impact on the level of maritime safety.
The Jurassic period is symbolized by large reptiles that dominated the land and seas. The most recent paleontological findings indicate that the territory of Poland was inhabited by several groups of large marine animals.
Marine governance is an essential way of achieving the objectives of sustainable development. It ought to be understood as the process of planning, as well as decision-making and management at the national and regional levels taking into account the global ocean as an ecological unity. The process of decision-making is closely interrelated with the regional and transnational cross-border cooperation. The adoption of the EU Directive establishing a framework for maritime spatial planning (hereinafter: MSP Directive) plays an important role in developing of marine spatial planning in Europe by promoting MSP instruments. MSP Directive requires all coastal EU Member States to prepare cross-sectoral maritime spatial plans by 2021. The development of spatial plans for Polish marine areas was started in 2013. The MSP legal bases are included in the Marine Areas of the Republic of Poland and Maritime Administration Act of 1991 amended in 2015 and its implementing regulations.
Cold−adapted marine bacteria producing extracellular hydrolytic enzymes are important for their industrial application and play a key role in degradation of particulate or ganic matter in their natural environment. In this work, members of a previously−obtained protease−producing bacterial collection isolated from different marine sources from Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetlands) were taxonomically identified and screened for their ability to produce other economically relevant enzymes. Eighty−eight proteolytic bacterial isolates were grouped into 25 phylotypes based on their Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis profiles. The sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes from representative isolates of the phylotypes showed that the predominant culturable protease−producing bacteria belonged to the class Gammaproteobacteria and were affiliated to the genera Pseudomonas , Shewanella , Colwellia , and Pseudoalteromonas , the latter being the predominant group (64% of isolates). In addition, members of the classes Actinobacteria, Bacilli and Flavobacteria were found. Among the 88 isolates screened we detected producers of amylases (21), pectinases (67), cellulases (53), CM−cellulases (68), xylanases (55) and agarases (57). More than 85% of the isolates showed at least one of the extracellular enzymatic activities tested, with some of them producing up to six extracellular enzymes. Our results confirmed that using selective conditions to isolate producers of one extracellular enzyme activity increases the probability of recovering bacteria that will also produce additional extracellular enzymes. This finding establishes a starting point for future programs oriented to the prospecting for biomolecules in Antarctica.
A 2.5−metre−long marine core from Isvika bay in Nordaustlandet (80 ° N, 18 ° E) was AMS 14 C dated and analysed for its sedimentological and magnetic parameters. The studied record was found to cover the entire Holocene and indicates major turnovers in the palaeohydrography and sedimentary depositional history. The area was deglaciated at around 11,300 BP. The early Holocene has indications of rapid melting of glaciers and frequent deposition of ice−rafted debris (IRD). The climatic optimum terminated with a probable glacier re−advance event occurring ca. 5800 cal BP. This event caused the deposition of a diamicton unit in Isvika bay, followed by a shift towards a colder and a more stratified hydrographic set − ting. The reduction in IRD indicates gradual cooling, which led to the stratification of the bay and eventually to more persistent fast sea−ice conditions by 2500 cal BP. For the last 500 years, Isvika has again been seasonally open.
Polish exploration and exploitation of marine resources of Antarctic waters date back to the reconnaissance cruise of the Sea Fisheries Institutes (SFI) r/v Profesor Siedlecki in 1974. Since 1975, a co-operation between the Institute of Ecology, Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS) at Dziekanów Leśny and SFI in Gdynia with participation of the University of Agriculture in Szczecin, Faculty Marine Fisheries and Food Technology (UA) was established. Fishing fleets of the Polish Deep-Sea Fisheries Companies Odra, Dalmor and Gryf, since 1976 were operating in the Atlantic sector of Antarctic waters, south of the convergence.
The most popular field methods of measurements of raised marine beach altitudes used by geomorphologists are presented. Compared data from clisimeter routes, altimeter routes and from readings from a photogeological map and directly from air photos compose the profiles. Advantages and disavantages of each method are discussed.
The comparison of the years 1981/82 and 1984/85 on the background of long term climatic observations on Svalbard suggest that two seasons compared belong to extremely different ones with regard to the sea ice, air temperature and biological phenomena. Despite meteorological and hydrological differences, the phytoplankton bloom and breeding period of major crustaceans were placed in the same time of the year. Differences were noted in the structure of zooplankton community, abundance of sea birds and mammals.
Geological and geomorphological studies in Kaffiöyra and Hermansenöya (Oscar II Land, northwestern Spitsbergen), completed with radiocarbon datings, indicated that the Early Vistulian (Weichselian) Glaciation of presumable regional significance, occupied the whole area. Marine transgression during and after deglaciation reached at least to 65 m a.s.l. Glacioisostatic uplift and marine regression in Kaffiöyra resulted in development of older raised beaches at 52-65 m a.s.l. During the Late Vistulian, Kaffiöyra was occupied partly by outlet glaciers (Aavatsmark, Elise and Andreas), while the Dahl Glacier covered Hermansenöya. Extents of these glaciers were much greater than during the Little Ice Age. Marine transgression during deglaciation reached to 46-48 m a.s.l. at about 12-11.5 ka B.P. During glacioisostatic emergence at 11.5-9 ka B.P., ten younger raised marine beaches were formed in Kaffiöyra. Traces of a probable glacial episode at 3-2.5 ka B.P. were noted in forefields of the Aavatsmark and the Elise glaciers only. In forefields of all glaciers in Kaffiöyra there are deposits and landforms formed during glacial advances of the Little Ice Age and the following continuous retreat. The Aavatsmark Glacier was the only one to indicate surge type readvances at that time.
Marine rock-accumulative terraces at 2-230 m a.s.l. in the southern Sörkapp Land are typical for glacioisostaticly uplifted areas. The Holocene terraces reach up to 19 m a.s.l. An outstanding coastal ridge at 9-10 m a.s.l. was radiocarbon-dated at 6580±160 years B.P. No marine transgression during the Holocene on higher and older terraces was noted, what is also confirmed by well preserved raised storm ridges. Any of glacial advances during the Holocene were more extensive than the one of the Little Ice Age. However the Pleistocene glaciations were more extensive. Among glacial landforms in the area there are: ice-cored frontal and lateral moraines up to 70 m high, plains of ground, ablation and fluted moraines, complexes of glaciofluvial fans. The glaciers retreated 0.3-2 km since 1936 i.e. ca 10 m a year on the average. There are large consequent structural landslides on eastern slopes of Keilhaufjellet.
A high performance and light-weight wound composite material wheel has been developed and is intended to be used for many purposes. One of these applications is marine current turbine (MCT). Traditionally, major problems influencing the design and operation of MCTs are fatigue, cavitation and corrosion due to the sea water. Considering these factors, implementation of composite materials, especially Kevlar fiber/epoxy matrix, in MCTs is explained in this paper. This novel design pattern of composite material marine current turbine (CMMCT) shows many advantages compared to conventional turbines. This paper investigated several factors which should be considered during this novel turbine design process such as the composite material selection, filament winding of composite wheel and turbine's structural and cavitation analysis. The power coefficient of CMMCT by using CFD is also obtained and the experimental facilities for testing CMMCT in a water towing tank are briefly described.
Soils, having a well-developed sequence of A and Bw horizons, are widespread on the uplifted marine terrace 8- 12 m a.s.l. in the proximity of Nottinghambukta Bay . The present-day origin of these soils is however questionable, while similarly developed soils, but buried under the cover of the youngest till were found on a forefield of the Werenskiold Glacier. To quantify an intensity of the soil-forming process under present climate conditions of SW Spitsbergen , the chronosequence of soils developed from the Recent, up to 70 year-old moraines, was studied on the forefield of Werenskiold Glacier. Significant dissolution of CaCO3, decrease of pH, leaching of calcium and magnesium, increase of amorphous iron content, as well as an accumulation of organic matter and initial formation of aggregate soil structure were observed within the surface layer of recent till. The 70 year-long period of pedogenesis was, however, too short for a distinct morphological differentiation of the subsurface B horizon. It is concluded, that deep and structural Bw horizons of some surface and buried soils are relicts of a much longer period of relatively warm climate before the last transgression of glaciers.
In the summer 1980-1981, in the Antarctic areas, in the coastal zone of Admiralty Bay (King George Island), complex measurements were carried out in order to investigate the proportion of wind gustiness in the processes generating marine spray systems and stimulating aerosol mass exchange between the sea and the atmosphere.
Basing of fieldworks geomorphologic and geologic setting of 14 raised marine beaches in northern Hornsund Region was presented. Their age is approximated by radiocarbon and thermoluminescence datings of sediments. The latter indicated that the four highest but mostly questionable marine beaches (220—230,200—205,180—190 and 100—120 m a.s.l.) should be referred to the Wedel Jarlsberg Land (Saalian) Glaciation. The four lower beaches (80—95, 70—75, 50—60 and 40—46 m a.s.1.) are connected with the Bogstranda (Eemian) Interglacial and the pre-maximum part of the Sorkapp Land (Vistulian) Glaciation. The post-maximum part of this glaciation, including Lisbetdalen Stage (50—40 ka) and Slaklidalen Stage (30—20 ka), was the time when the three still lower marine beaches (32—35, 22—25,16—18 m a.s.l.) were formed. Three lowermost marine beaches (8—12,4.5—6,2 m a.s.l.) are of the Holocene age.
Influence exerted by various concentrations (0.01 to 50 ppm) of some chlorinated hydrocarbons (Aroclor 1254, Aroclor 1242, pp'DDE, pp'DDT and Lindane (ɣ НСН)) upon the photosynthetic assimilation of 14C02 in Antarctic marine diatom assemblage dominated by Corethron criophilum and some species of Nitzschia (Fragilariopsis group) has been investigated. The photosynthesis was fully inhibited by Lindane (ɣ HCH) in all applied concentrations To smaller extent the photosynthetic process was inhibited in turn by Aroclor 1242, pp'DDE and pp'DDT successively. Aroclor 1254 proved to be the least toxic. The possibility of the decrease of the primary production of the Antarctic diatoms caused by the chlorinated hydrocarbons was discussed.
Experiments have been carried out on the influence exerted by Aroclor 1254 upon the photosynthetic production of organic 14C by an assemblage of marine Antarctic diatoms (Thalassiosira sp. 48%, Nitzschia sp. 21%, Chaetoceros sp. 15% and Corethron iriophilum 10%). Samples of various numbers of cells per cm3 of water have been used. Incorporation of 14C02 by the diatoms proved to be proportional to the increased number of cells in the sample only at the lowest levels of concentration in per cm3. Further increase of the level of 14C in diatoms has not been found as number of cells in the sample kept growing. Calculation of brutto photosynthesis has indicated that low concentration of Aroclor 1254 (0,01 to 1 ppm) may stimulate the photosynthetic incorporation of carbon, yet the photosynthetic release of carbon from cells within the photorespiratory process is stimulated to a higher degree. High concentration of Aroclor (1 to 50 ppm) inhibit the brutto assimilation, yet the release of carbon during the photorespiratory process is inhibited to a higher degree. A hypothesis is being considered implying that the relation between the intensity of photosynthesis and intensity of photorespiration may vary according to the rate of concentration of Aroclor.
The Trinity Peninsula Group (Permo-Triassic?) at Hope Bay, northern Antarctic Peninsula, is represented by the Hope Bay Formation, more than 1200 m thick. It is subdivided into three members: the Hut Cove Member (HBF,), more than 500 m thick (base unknown), is a generally unfossiliferous marine turbidite unit formed under anaerobic to dysaerobic conditions, with trace fossils only in its upper part; the Seal Point Member (HBF2), 170—200 m thick, is a marine turbidite unit formed under dysaerobic conditions, with trace fossils and allochthonous plant detritus; the Scar Hills Member (HBF3), more than 550 m thick (top unknown), is a predominantly sandstone unit rich in plant detritus, probably formed under deltaic conditions. The supply of clastic material was from northeastern sources. The Hope Bay Formation was folded prior to Middle Jurassic terrestrial plant-bearing beds (Mount Flora Formation), from which it is separated by angular unconformity. Acidic porphyritic dykes and sills cut through the Hope Bay Formation. They were probably feeders for terrestrial volcanics of the Kenney Glacier Formation (Lower Cretaceous) which unconformably covers the Mount Flora Formation. Andean-type diorite and gabbro plutons and dykes (Cretaceous) intrude the Hope Bay Formation, causing thermal alteration of its deposits in a zone up to several hundred metres thick. All the above units are displaced by two system of faults, an older longitudinal, and a younger transversal, of late Cretaceous or Tertiary age.
There are two important unconformities in the Calypsostranda Group (late Palaeogene) at Bellsund, Spitsbergen. The first one is the basal angular unconformity of the Skilvika Formation against folded and planated Proterozoic metasediments: the author provides evidence for its primary sedimentary character. The second one is an intraformational erosional disconformity/discontinuity expressed by rapid replacement of coal-bearing terrestrial strata (Skilvika Formation) by shallow-marine strata (Renarddodden Formation).
The specific activity of natural gamma emitters like actinium (228Ac), bismuth (212Bi, 214Bi), lead (212Pb, 214Pb), potassium (40K), radium (224Ra), thallium (208Tl) and artificial radioisotope caesium (137Cs) was measured in 2005 in the surface layer of marine sediments in the northern Svalbard: Wijdefjorden, Woodfjorden, Vestfjorden and Bockfjorden as well as in the freshwater reservoirs in Andre Land. Nonuniform spatial distribution of these radionuclides was found. Sediment sample from Bockfjorden had the highest specific activities of all natural radionuclides. The specific radioactivity of 137Cs was much lower than specific radioactivities of natural radionuclides but there were differences between investigated locations. The distribution of 137Cs is similar to persistent organic pollutants of the lake sediments in the area.
The Polish Geophysical Expedition to West Antarctica in 1979-1980 was carried out by the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences. Beside deep seismic soundings, 12 multi-channel seismic profiles, with a total length of ca 1000 km have been recorded north and east of the South Shetland Islands and in the Bransfield Strait, but they have never before been completely interpreted and published. All profiles have been processed with modern processing flow including time migration. Profiles crossing the South Shetland Trench revealed distinct reflector inside continental slope, which has been interpreted as border between buried accretionary prism and overlying slope sediments of glacial-marine origin. Profiles in the Bransfield Strait show traces of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the form of glacial foreground valleys, with some of them used as weak spots for young age volcanic intrusions. This paper is the first comprehensive geological interpretation of collected dataset and differences between results from other expeditions are discussed.
Geomorphological research based on geomorphological mapping seeks to identify the origins and age of forms as well as to describe the process that created or transformed a particular form. One of the most important aspects of this study is the morphometry and morphology of the landscape. This also applies to the submarine areas, and issues related to marine geomorphometry. Bathymetric data used in this study were obtained from the measurements of the Norwegian Hydrographic Service and measurements conducted by the authors. Its main goal was: to determine the bathymetry of the Recherchefjorden (Bellsund, Svalbard), establish morphometric parameters for the analysis of the morphology of the bottom. The boundaries of zones, related to the specific character of bottom geomorphology linked with geological structure, tectonics and, in particular, the impact of glacial system, was delineated. The sets of landforms (areas) were distinguished based on the morphometric analysis resulting from the determined parameters: slopes, its aspects, curvatures and Bathymetric Position Index. Basically, this areas are concentrated in two zones: the main Recherchefjorden and its surroundings. The delimitation also takes into account the origins and location of theme in relation to the glacial systems. On this basis, moraine areas were distinguished. They are linked with the Holocene advances of two glaciers, Renardbeen and Recherchebreen, mainly during the Little Ice Age. They constitute boundary zones between areas with different morphometric parameters: outer fjord and inner fjord. Moreover, taking into account geology and terrestrial geomorphology it was possible to describe paraglacial processes in this area.
In order to recover the low grade waste heat and increase system fuel economy for main engine 10S90ME-C9.2-TII(part load, exhaust gas bypass) installed on a 10000 TEU container ship, a non-cogeneration and single-pressure type of waste heat recovery system based on organic Rankine cycle is proposed. Organic compound candidates appropriate to the system are analyzed and selected. Thermodynamic model of the whole system and thermoeconomic optimization are performed. The saturated organic compound vapor mass flow rate, net electric power output, pinch point, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency varied with different evaporating temperature are thermodynamically analyzed. The results of thermodynamic and thermoeconomic optimization indicate that the most appropriate organic compound candidate is R141b due to its highest exergy efficiency, biggest unit cost benefit and shortest payback time.
A laboratory study was performed to study the effects of various operating factors, viz. adsorbent dose, contact time, solution pH, stirring speed, initial concentration and temperature on the adsorption of triphenyltin chloride (TPT) onto coal fly ash supported nZnO (CFAZ). The adsorption capacity increases with increase in the adsorbent amount, contact time, pH, stirring speed and initial TPT concentration, and decrease with increase in the solution temperature. The adsorption data have been analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption models to determine the mechanistic parameters associated with the adsorption process while the kinetic data were analyzed by pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, Elovich, fractional power and intraparticle diffusivity kinetic models. The thermodynamic parameters of the process were also determined. The results of this study show that 0.5 g of CFAZ was able to remove up to 99.60% of TPT from contaminated natural seawater at 60 min contact time, stirring speed of 200 rpm and at a pH of 8. It was also found that the equilibrium and kinetic data fitted better to Freundlich and pseudo second-order models, respectively. It can therefore be concluded that CFAZ can be effectively used for shipyard process wastewater treatment
The study addresses the challenges facing the law of the sea. Although UNCLOS is rightly described as a constitution of the law of the sea, it does not and cannot give answers to all problems and doubts that arise in practice and that are related to global warming, protection of biodiversity, legal status of genetic resources, controversy concerning shipping, delimitation of areas or the protection of underwater cultural heritage. Hence the question arises, what the ways and means of further development of the law of the sea are. Undoubtedly, one of the possibilities is to develop implementation agreements, of which the third devoted to the protection and sustainable use of marine biodiversity outside national jurisdiction is the subject of an international conference convened by the General Assembly, whose resolutions in the area of the law of the sea play an important role. Undoubtedly, also the importance of the organization of the United Nations system, such as the IMO, FAO, UNESCO, UNEP is significant. There is also the possibility of accepting agreements addressing the issues left by UNCLOS without solution or definition. Not without significance is the soft law and the practice of states as well as the position of the organs appointed by UNCLOS.
Trace fossils Phymatoderma melvillensis isp. nov., Thalassinoides isp., ?Nereites isp. and Planolites isp. are reported from the glacio−marine sediments of the Cape Melville Formation (Lower Miocene) of King George Island, West Antarctica. Their occurrence and strong bioturbation of sediments point to an offshore or deeper (outer shelf or upper slope) en− vironment. Deep marine crab Antarctidromia inflata Förster, 1985, has been found in Thalassinoides isp. The tracemaker (?crustacean) of Phymatodermamelvillensis re−reworked pelletal sediments probably during times of food deficiency.