The Polish Academy of Sciences asks prominent experts about the problem with bark beetle outbreaks in the Białowieża Primeval Forest. Should the protection of this ancient forest include felling and removing infected trees?
The purpose of the paper is the attempt to point one of the most important aspects of the cultural contact of the Poland and Arabic countries with the consideration of the historical perspective. The author assumes that the language is the basic carrier of such contacts and also the main area of the mutual influences. Therefore, she discusses the Arabic and Polish relations mostly on the level of the translation of the literary and scientific output of both sides, as well as the linguistic interference mainly in the aspect of the lexical borrowings. The author quotes many examples of such linguistic contacts and underlines their great meaning in the existence and development of other types of relations: political, commercial, and cultural.
GNSS systems are susceptible to radio interference despite then operating in a spread spectrum. The commerce jammers power up to 2 watts that can block the receiver function at a distance of up to 15 kilometers in free space. Two original methods for GNSS receiver testing were developed. The first method is based on the usage of a GNSS simulator for generation of the satellite signals and a vector signal RF generator for generating different types of interference signals. The second software radio method is based on a software GNSS simulator and a signal processing in Matlab. The receivers were tested for narrowband CW interference, FM modulated signal and chirp jamming signals and scenarios. The signal to noise ratio usually drops down to 27 dBc-Hz while the jamming to signal ratio is different for different types of interference. The chirp signal is very effective. The jammer signal is well propagated in free space while in the real mobile urban and suburban environment it is usually strongly attenuated.
Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) has been proposed as a solution to reducing the huge cost of network upgrade while providing the spectral and energy efficiency needed for the new generation cellular networks. In order to reduce the interference that occur in C-RAN and maximize throughput, this paper proposes a sequentially distributed coalition formation (SDCF) game in which players, in this case the remote radio heads (RRHs), can sequentially join multiple coalitions to maximize their throughput. Contrary to overlapping coalition formation (OCF) game where players contribute fractions of their limited resources to different coalitions, the SDCF game offers better stability by allowing sequential coalition formation depending on the availability of resources and therefore providing a balance between efficient spectrum use and interference management. An algorithm for the proposed model is developed based on the merge-only method. The performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of stability, complexity and convergence to final coalition structure is also investigated. Simulation results show that the proposed SDCF game did not only maximize the throughput in the C-RAN, but it also shows better performances and larger capabilities to manage interference with increasing number of RRHs compared to existing methods.
The aim of the article is to present loan vocabulary connected to clothes and ornaments. The Old-Believers’ dialect is subject to Polish interference on the lexical level because vocabulary is the linguistic element which is changing most rapidly. The dialect studied is situated in the Polish linguistic environment and thus it is isolated due to its lack of territorial contact with the Russian language. It belongs to the so-called Pskov group – the western Central Great Russian akanie dialects. Since the 1950s, when research into the dialect was initiated by Iryda Grek-Pabisowa and Irena Maryniakowa, the biggest increase in loan words has been noticed in the vocabulary related to health, jobs, clothes and ornaments, and the expressions used to refer to the new reality: the progress of civilisation, education, transport and agriculture. The lexemes borrowed are subject to various adaptation processes, for example, phonetic, stress-pattern, morphological or derivational ones.
Detailed studies on the effects of pulsed laser interference heating on surface characteristics and subsurface microstructure of amorphous Fe80Si11B9 alloy are reported. Laser interference heating, with relatively low pulsed laser energy (90 and 120 mJ), but with a variable number (from 50-500) of consecutive laser pulses permitted to get energy accumulation in heated areas. Such treatment allowed to form two- Dimensional micro-islands of laser-affected material periodically distributed in amorphous matrix. The crystallization process of amorphous FeSiB ribbons was studied by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Detailed microstructural examination showed that the use of laser beam, resulted in development of nanostructure in the heated areas of the amorphous ribbon. The generation of nanocrystalline seed islands created by pulsed laser interference was observed. This key result may evidently give new knowledge concerning the differences in microstructure formed during the conventional and lased induced crystallization the amorphous alloys. Further experiments are needed to clarify the effect of pulsed laser interference crystallization on magnetic properties of these alloys.
The paper presents the results of research on the plastic zones formation in thin (3.51 [mm]) shields made of steel C45 with holes of 4, 10 and 20 diameters. The authorship method of identifying plastic macro-strains utilizing optical interference phenomenon was used in the experiments. The basic idea of the method is summarized below as being: “The occurrence of plastic deformations in the active process of loading is testified by a loss of the interference fringes that were previously present or by a clear and rapid change in their character”. In the experiments, the values of the stress initiating the first plastic deformation were determined. In order to explain the processes of plastic deformation appearance a detailed stress state analysis in the holes surrounding area was realized with the use of Finite Element Method. Comparison of experimental results with the results of FEM calculations indicates that there are significant quantitative as well as qualitative differences. Namely stresses initiating plastic deformations clearly exceed the value of ReH, and plastic deformation are of local plastic slides character. Similar results were previously obtained in studies on the shields made of steel 15CrMo with holes.
An outstanding Polish biochemist, laureate of the Foundation for Polish Science Prize in 2007, member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, a head of the Department of Molecular Biomedicine at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, PAS in Poznan Professor Wlodzimierz Krzyzosiak’s research path led from the structural chemistry of nucleic acids, through molecular genetics and cancer genetics to molecular medicine. In the last years, Professor's scientific activity focused on understanding the role of RNA in the pathogenesis of human neurological diseases caused by the expansion of repetitive sequences. He also developed new methods of experimental therapy for this group of disorders using antisense oligonucleotides and RNA interference technology. He analyzed the factors influencing the microRNA biogenesis and used this knowledge to improve RNA interference technology tools in therapeutic approaches. Overall, Professor Krzyżosiak coauthored more than 130 publications, which have been cited more than 3500 times so far.
In cellular networks, cells are grouped more densely around highly populated areas to provide more capacity. Antennas are pointed in accordance with local terrain and clutter to reduce signal shadows and interference. Hardware parameters are easily set during installation but difficult to change thereafter. In a dynamic environment of population migration, there is need to continuously tune network parameters to adapt the network performance. Modern mobile equipment logs network usage patterns and statistics over time. This information can be used to tune soft parameters of the network. These parameters may include frequency channel assignment or reuse, and transmitter radiation power assignment to provide more capacity on demand. The paper proposes that by combining the frequency and power assignments, further optimisation in resource allocation can be achieved over a traditional frequency assignment. The solution considers the interference, traffic intensity and use of priority flags to bias some edges. An Edge Weight Power and Frequency Assignment Algorithm is presented to solve the resource allocation problem in cellular networks. The paper also analyses the performance improvements obtained over that of the Edge Weight Frequency Assignment Algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm improves the performance of the Edge Weight Frequency Assignment Algorithm depending on the initial structure of the graph.
Specific requirements are designed and implemented in electronic and telecommunication systems for received signals, especially high-frequency ones, to examine and control the signal radiation. However, as a serious drawback, no special requirements are considered for the transmitted signals from a subsystem. Different industries have always been struggling with electromagnetic interferences affecting their electronic and telecommunication systems and imposing significant costs. It is thus necessary to specifically investigate this problem as every device is continuously exposed to interferences. Signal processing allows for the decomposition of a signal to its different components to simulate each component. Radiation control has its specific complexities in systems, requiring necessary measures from the very beginning of the design. This study attempted to determine the highest radiation from a subsystem by estimating the radiation fields. The study goal was to investigate the level of radiations received and transmitted from the adjacent systems, respectively, and present methods for control and eliminate the existing radiations. The proposed approach employs an algorithm which is based on multi-component signals, defect, and the radiation shield used in the subsystem. The algorithm flowchart focuses on the separation and of signal components and electromagnetic interference reduction. In this algorithm, the detection process is carried out at the bounds of each component, after which the separation process is performed in the vicinity of the different bounds. The proposed method works based on the Fourier transform of impulse functions for signal components decomposition that was employed to develop an algorithm for separation of the components of the signals input to the subsystem.
Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) with Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC) is one of the promising techniques proposed for 5G systems. It allows multiple users with different channel coefficients to share the same (time/frequency) resources by allocating several levels of (power/code) to them. In this article, a design of a cooperative scheme for the uplink NOMA Wi-Fi transmission (according to IEEE 802.11 standards) is investigated. Various channel models are exploited to examine the system throughput. Convolutional coding in conformance to IEEE 802.11a/g is applied to evaluate the system performance. The simulation results have been addressed to give a clear picture of the performance of the investigated system.
A novel method to improve the performance of the frequency band is cognitive radio that was introduced in 1999. Due to a lot of advantages of the OFDM, adaptive OFDM method, this technique is used in cognitive radio (CR) systems, widely. In adaptive OFDM, transmission rate and power of subcarriers are allocated based on the channel variations to improve the system performance. This paper investigates adaptive resource allocation in the CR systems that are used OFDM technique to transmit data. The aim of this paper is to maximize the achievable transmission rate for the CR system by considering the interference constraint. Although secondary users can be aware form channel information between each other, but in some wireless standards, it is impossible for secondary user to be aware from channel information between itself and a primary user. Therefore, due to practical limitation, statistical interference channel is considered in this paper. This paper introduces a novel suboptimal power allocation algorithm. Also, this paper introduces a novel bit loading algorithm. In the numerical results sections, the performance of our algorithm is compared by optimal and conventional algorithms. Numerical results indicate our algorithm has better performance than conventional algorithms while its complexity is less than optimal algorithm.
Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) in Long Term Evolution (LTE) can effectively eliminate intra-cell interferences between the subcarriers in a single serving cell. But, there is more critical issue that, OFDMA cannot accomplish to decrease the inter-cell interference. In our proposed method, we aimed to increase signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) by dividing the cells as cell center and cell edge. While decreasing the interference between cells, we also aimed to increase overall system throughput. For this reason, we proposed a dynamic resource allocation technique that is called Experience-Based Dynamic Soft Frequency Reuse (EBDSFR). We compared our proposed scheme with different resource allocation schemes that are Dynamic Inter-cellular Bandwidth Fair Sharing FFR (FFRDIBFS) and Dynamic Inter-cellular Bandwidth Fair Sharing Reuse-3 (Reuse3DIBFS). Simulation results indicate that, proposed EBDSFR benefits from overall cell throughput and obtains higher user fairness than the reference schemes.