The purpose of this paper is to present and analyse the decision-making problem faced by a future house owner - selection of the optimal solution of building thermal insulation in relation to the selected criteria, both related to costs and future benefits. The problem of selecting the best solutions in the construction sector is widely discussed in the science literature. In this paper, the authors decided to solve the raised problem by using the Entropy method.
In the authors’ opinion, the issue of incorrectly functioning water insulation of foundation walls in the existing buildings in Poland is currently rather common. The paper includes a multicriteria analysis aimed at arranging the selected options of the foundation wall vertical water insulation technology in an existing model historic building using the weighted sum, entropy and AHP methods. Each of the studied solutions was evaluated in terms of the following criteria: costs of construction works, time of execution of construction works, popularity of using particular insulation options by other contractors, durability of the executed insulation and the degree of nuisance of the executed works
Extensive efforts have been made for many years by the power generating industry to replace conventional solid and liquid insulation with synthetic materials. Those measures are aimed at increasing the load capacity, improved fire safety and extending transformer life during exploitation. Modern insulating materials include aramid fibre-based paper and insulating fluids made of synthetic and natural esters. The paper presents research results of the electrostatic charging tendency (ECT) of mixtures of fresh and aged mineral oil Trafo En with synthetic ester Midel 7131 and natural ester Midel 1204. The measurements were taken in a flow-through system using the pipes made of metal, cellulose and aramid paper. The influence of the liquid flow velocity, the type of material of the measuring pipe and the mixture content on the level of the streaming electrification current generation was determined.
A verification study of ultrasound transmission numerical simulation results with experiment results is presented in this paper. The work considers a model of a transformer tank which is filled with electro insulating oil. In the experiment, performed under laboratory conditions, an ultrasound wave is generated by a piezoelectric transducer that is fixed in the centre of the tank and measured by another transducer mounted inside the tank at three distances: 10, 20 and 30 cm from the sound source. The transducer is able to measure and generate acoustic waves in the ultrasound frequency band up to 1 MHz. The simulation considers numerical calculation of acoustic pressure distribution inside the tank in which acoustic source emits waves with frequency equal to 100 kHz. Verification analysis has confirmed consistency of the numerically calculated values with the measurement results.
Additional sound sources are used as actuators in the vast majority of active noise reduction systems. One of the possible opportunities to extend the field of applications of active noise reduction systems is using active structures of variable sound insulation. The paper presents an analysis of ways of reducing noise with a structure of variable sound insulation consisting of a metal plate, active elements (Macro Fiber Composite), and a control system. The paper presents results of acoustic radiation simulations and measurements of sound intensity generated by the structure under the influence of stimulation by an acoustic wave. Simulations of mechanical vibrations and acoustic radiation for the plate were performed with the finite element method and ANSYS software. Simulation results made it possible to select locations for gluing the active elements and sensors. Analyses of the sound pressure level in the space to which the plate is radiating made it possible to determine dominant frequencies in the characteristics and, as a result, indicate vibration modes that can be reduced. Sound intensity measurements were performed with a three-way probe of USP mini Microflown. Results of simulations and measurements show that it is possible to achieve an improvement of the insulating power of a metal plate by approx. 10 dB.
Before disassemble and demolition of five granulation towers the authors planned and carried out measurements of the intensity of vibrations induced during the fall of the dismantled components of towers on the ground. The main aim of the study was to determine the maximum permissible weight of falling elements of the towers during the demolition, in terms of ensuring the protection of buildings and equipment located in the vicinity of the works. It was unacceptable to increase the vibration amplitude displacement in each section of measurement on each of the three perpendicular axes by more than 2 μm peak-to-peak value and the absolute velocity of RMS of vibration amplitude couldn’t be increased by more than 1 mm/sec value than the background vibration during the demolition of the towers. Preliminary experimental studies were conducted on a test stand and the measurements were made on the real object. The amplitudes of vibration waves displacement and velocity were recorded on the measurement section in the direction of the protected building. The results of measurements were used to identify the propagation of the shock wave and the effectiveness of the proposed insulation layers.
The article presents the results of diagnostic measurements of partial discharge signal propagation from the winding insulation in electrical machinery, which were performed using an on-line method. This paper describes the results of experiments and the acquired experience in the monitoring of winding insulation in high power and high voltage electrical machines which are important in industrial production processes. The authors show the measurement techniques employed in their research. Representative measurement results are presented along with their analysis. The authors use an SKF monitoring systems to measure: vibrations, temperature, and humidity, as major factors affecting partial discharge activity in the from winding insulation of electrical machines.
The increment in the number of automobiles and the densification of the city has increased noise pollution rates. In addition, the lack of regulation in Chile regarding the acoustic insulation of façades is a problem of a growing concern. The main objective of the present study was to obtain a model of the Sound Insulation of housing, façades, stratified in Santiago, Chile, based on constructive variables. It is expected to serve as a basis for one future regulation for acoustic façades of houses. In the present study, tests based on the international ISO 140-5 standard were carried out in situ. An estimation model of the Standardized Level Difference Dls,2m,nT,w + C, was obtained based on the opening/façade proportion, and the type of glass used for the windows.
The main purpose of the presented research is to investigate the partial discharge (PD) phenomenon variability under long-term AC voltage with particular consideration of the selected physical quantities changes while measured and registered by the acoustic emission method (AE). During the research a PD model source generating surface discharges is immersed in the brand new insulation mineral oil. Acoustic signals generated by the continuously occurred PDs within 168 hours are registered. Several qualitative and quantitative indicators are assigned to describe the PD variability in time. Furthermore, some longterm characteristics of the applied PD model source in mineral oil, are also presented according to acoustic signals emitted by the PD. Finally, various statistical tools are applied for the results analysis and presentation. Despite there are numerous contemporary research papers dealing with long-term PD analysis, such complementary and multiparametric approach has not been presented so far, regarding the presented research. According to the presented research from among all assigned indicators there are discriminated descriptors that could depend on PD long-term duration. On the grounds of the regression models analysis there are discovered trends that potentially allow to apply the results for modeling of the PD variability in time using the acoustic emission method. Subsequently such an approach may potentially support the development and extend the abilities of the diagnostic tools and maintenance policy in electrical power industry.
The locally resonant sonic material (LRSM) is an artificial metamaterial that can block underwater sound. The low-frequency insulation performance of LRSM can be enhanced by coupling local resonance and Bragg scattering effects. However, such method is hard to be experimentally proven as the best optimizing method. Hence, this paper proposes a statistical optimization method, which first finds a group of optimal solutions of an object function by utilizing genetic algorithm multiple times, and then analyzes the distribution of the fitness and the Euclidean distance of the obtained solutions, in order to verify whether the result is the global optimum. By using this method, we obtain the global optimal solution of the low-frequency insulation of LRSM. By varying parameters of the optimum, it can be found that the optimized insulation performance of the LRSM is contributed by the coupling of local resonance with Bragg scattering effect, as well as a distinct impedance mismatch between the matrix of LRSM and the surrounding water. This indicates coupling different effects with impedance mismatches is the best method to enhance the low-frequency insulation performance of LRSM.
Main aim of this study is to combine the characteristics of the sonic crystal (SC) with acoustic panels and porous materials to improve the sound transmission loss (STL) through the triple-panel structure. SCs cause a bandgap centered around a certain frequency (Bragg’s frequency) due to generation of destructive interference. Initially, an analytical method is developed that extends the previous theory of double-panel structure to predict STL through a triple-panel structure. Finite element (FE) simulations are performed to obtain the STL through the triple-panel, which are validated with the analytical predictions. Various configurations are analyzed using the FE method based on the method of inserting the porous material and SCs between the panels to address the combined effect. STL through the triple-panel structure is compared with that through the double-panel structure having the same total weight and total thickness. It is found that the combined structure of the triple panel and the SC with glass wool as filler gives the best soundproof performance for the same external dimensions. For narrow air gaps, filing with glass wool is more advantageous than inserting one row of SC. In addition, the triple panel combined with a SC has better soundproofing than the two-panel counterparts.
This paper presents the spatial distribution of changes in the value of the predicted insulation index of clothing (Iclp) in the Norwegian Arctic for the period 1971-2000. For this study, data from six meteorological stations were used: Ny-Alesund, Svalbard Airport, Hornsund, Hopen, Bjřrnřya and Jan Mayen. The impact on the atmospheric circulation to the course of the Iclp index was analyzed using the catalogue of circulation types by Niedźwiedź (1993, 2002), the circulation index according to Murray and Lewis (1966) modified by Niedźwiedź (2001), the North Atlantic Oscillation Index according to Luterbacher et al. (1999, 2002), and the Arctic Oscillation Index (Thompson and Wallace 1998).
The article presents the results concerning the use of clustering methods to identify signals of acoustic emission (AE) generated by partial discharge (PD) in oil-paper insulation. The conducted testing featured qualitative analysis of the following clustering methods: single linkage, complete linkage, average linkage, centroid linkage and Ward linkage. The purpose of the analysis was to search the tested series of AE signal measurements, deriving from three various PD forms, for elements of grouping (clusters), which are most similar to one another and maximally different than in other groups in terms of a specific feature or adopted criteria. Then, the conducted clustering was used as a basis for attempting to assess the effectiveness of identification of particular PD forms that modelled exemplary defects of the power transformer’s oil-paper insulation system. The relevant analyses and simulations were conducted using the Matlab estimation environment and the clustering procedures available in it. The conducted tests featured analyses of the results of the series of measurements of acoustic emissions generated by the basic PD forms, which were obtained in laboratory conditions using spark gap systems that modelled the defects of the power transformer’s oil-paper insulation.
An alternative method for analysis of acoustic emission (AE) signals generated by partial discharges (PD), based on a correlation between voltage phase run and AE pulses, so called phase resolved PD pattern (PRPD), is presented in the paper. PRPD pattern is a well-known analysis tool commonly used in such PD diagnostic methods as conventional electrical and UHF ones. Moreover, it yields various signal analysis abilities and allows a direct correlation indication between measurement results achieved using different methods. An original PRPD measurement methodology applied for AE method as well as some exemplary measurement results and further data analysis capabilities are presented in the paper. Also a comparative analysis of PRPD patterns achieved using various measurement methods and different PD source configurations have been investigated. All presented experiments were done under laboratory conditions using PD model sources immersed in the insulation oil. The main purpose of the presented research is to indicate an all-embracing analytical tool that yields an ability to direct comparison (qualitative as well as quantitative) of the AE measurement results with other commonly applied PD measurement methods. The presented results give a solid fundamental for further research work concerning a direct correlation method for AE and other described in the paper diagnostic techniques, mainly in order to continue PD phenomena analysis and assessment in real life high voltage apparatus insulation systems under normal onsite operation conditions.
In this study, agar-based nanocomposite films containing ultra-porous silica aerogel particles were fabricated by gel casting using an aqueous agar/silica aerogel slurry. The silica aerogel particles did not show significant agglomeration and were homogeneously distributed in the agar matrix. Transmission electron microscopy observations demonstrated that the silica aerogel particles had a mesoporous microstructure and their pores were not incorporated into the agar polymer molecules. The thermal conductivities of the agar and agar/5 wt.% silica aerogel nanocomposite films were 0.36 and 0.20 W·m–1·K–1, respectively. The transmittance of the agar films did not decrease upon the addition of silica aerogel particles into them. This can be attributed to the anti-reflection effect of silica aerogel particles.
A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2) inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2recovered (156.43 kg/s) and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.
The results from the experimental research are presented in the abstract. The experimental research involved utilization of the sludge from the mine water treatment plant of Coal Quarry ČSA/Czechoslovak Army/ (hereinafter “ČSA”) and Coal Quarry Jana Švermy (hereinafter “JŠ”) in the segment of thermal insulation mortars. The mine water treatment is described below including chemical and mineralogical sludge composition as the additional component of the binding material in the polyurethane thermal insulation mortars. Furthermore the composition of experimental mixtures of the thermal insulation polyurethane mortar is presented in the work and its physical-mechanical properties. The monitored elements included the strength characteristics, heat conductivity coefficient λ, and water vapour diffusion coefficient μ.
Partial discharges (PD) are influencing electrical insulating systems of high voltage electrical devices. Typically, in laboratory and diagnostics AC tests focused on measuring and analysis of PD, a pure sinusoidal voltage waveform is assumed. However, in practice the spectral content of the working voltage is rarely so ideal and additional spectral components have a significant impact on the discharge behaviour in electrical insulation systems. In this paper the influence of voltage harmonics on PD behaviour and phase-resolved PD patterns evolution is analysed. The presented experiments were conducted on a specimen representing a gaseous inclusion embedded in electrical insulation. The experimental results showed that various harmonic compositions superimposed on the fundamental sinusoidal waveform have a significant impact on PD intensity and maximum charge. In consequence, the derived patterns of PD phase, and magnitude distributions are distorted, and statistical parameters calculated on their basis are changed. In certain en- vironments, neglecting harmonic content in the testing voltage may lead to a misleading interpretation and assessment of PD severity.
The new legislative provisions, regulating the trade in solid fuels in our country, draw attention to the need to develop and improve methods and methods of managing hard coal sludge. The aim of the work was to show whether filtration parameters (mainly the permeability coefficient) of hard coal sludge are sufficient for construction of insulating layers in landfills at the stage of their closing and what is the demand for material in the case of such a procedure. The analysis was carried out for landfills for municipal waste in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie provinces. For hard coal sludge, the permeability coefficient values are in the range of 10–8–10–11 m/s, with the average value of 3.16 × 10–9 m/s. It can be concluded that this material generally meets the criteria of tightness for horizontal and often vertical flows. When compaction, increasing load or mixing with fly ash from hard coal combustion and clays, the achieved permeability coefficient often lowers its values. Based on the analysis, it can be assumed that hard coal sludge can be used to build mineral insulating barriers. At the end of 2016, 50 municipal landfills were open in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie Provinces. Only 36 of them have obtained the status of a regional installation, close to 1/3 of the municipal landfill are within the Major Groundwater Basin (MGB) range. The remaining storage sites will be designated for closure. Assuming the necessity to close all currently active municipal waste landfills, the demand for hard coal sludge amounts to a total of 1,779,000 m3 which, given the assumptions, gives a mass of 2,704,080 Mg. The total amount of hard coal sludge production is very high in Poland. Only two basic mining groups annually produce a total of about 1,500,000 Mg of coal sludge. The construction of insulating layers in landfills of inert, hazardous and non-hazardous and inert wastes is an interesting solution. Such an application is prospective, but it will not solve the problem related to the production and management of this waste material as a whole. It is important to look for further solutions.
In the process of extraction and enrichment of coal waste, considerable quantities of waste material are produced, mainly the gangue and coal sludge, considered as waste or raw material. The main directions of the management development of the waste rock are the production of aggregates, the production of energy products and the liquidation works in hard coal mines and the filling of excavations. The paper proposes the extension of these activities to the use of waste material. The possibility of using aggregates or extractive waste to fill open-pit excavations has been proposed, also in areas within the reach of groundwater and the possibility of building insulation layers of waste material and the production of mixtures of hard coal sludge and sewage sludge to produce material with good energy properties. The analysis was based on the author’s own research and literature data related to selected parameters of waste material. This paper presents our own preliminary studies on the amount of combustion heat and the calorific value of coal sludge combined with other wastes such as sewage sludge. The proposed methods and actions are part of the current directions of development, but they allow the extension of the scope of use of both extractive waste and products produced on the basis of gangue or coal sludge. Due to the frequent lack of the stable composition of these materials, their current properties should be assessed each time before attempting to use them. The fact that it is important to continue research to promote existing economic use and to seek new activities or methods has been concluded.
The modern cabin of heavy duty machines have to fulfil a number of requirements which deal with operators' work comfort. More and more often, the vibroacoustic and thermal comforts decide about the cabin quality. This paper presents principles of acoustic and thermal calculations as well as their use in combined assessment.
Urethane foam mattresses are commonly used as cushioning when placing panel flooring on the floor slab of a building. Urethane foam consists of elastic fibres with pores. Both elements can affect the performance of the insulation against impact sounds. However, these effects have not yet been detailed, and they may change if the material properties or constitution of the fibres and pores in the cushioning change. In this paper, we propose an analytical model for use in evaluating the performance of insulation against floor impact sound. This model was used to examine the contribution of the pores versus the elastic fibres to wave transmissions from the flooring surface to the slab. The results reveal that the constitution of the foam (either open or closed cells of pores) and the thickness and hardness of the cushion layer strongly affect the sound insulation performance of the floor.
Airborne acoustic properties of composite structural insulated panels CSIPs composed of fibre-magnesium-cement facesheets and expanded polystyrene core were studied. The sound reduction ratings were measured experimentally in an acoustic test laboratory composed of two reverberation chambers. The numerical finite element (FEM) model of an acoustic laboratory available in ABAQUS was used and verified with experimental results. Steady-state and transient FE analyses were performed. The 2D and 3D modelling FE results were compared. Different panel core modifications were numerically tested in order to improve the airborne sound insulation of CSIPs.
Transformers are one of the most important components of the power system. It is important to maintain and assess the condition. Transformer lifetime depends on the life of its insulation and insulation life is also strongly influenced by moisture in the insulation. Due to importance of this issue, in this paper a new method is introduced for determining the moisture content of the transformer insulation system using dielectric response analysis in the frequency domain based on artificial bee colony algorithm. First, the master curve of dielectric response is modeled. Then, using proposed method the master curve and the measured dielectric response curves are compared. By analyzing the results of the comparison, the moisture content of paper insulation, electrical conductivity of the insulating oil and dielectric model dimensions are determined. Finally, the proposed method is applied to several practical samples to demonstrate its capabilities compared with the well-known conventional method.