Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a supportive and life-saving therapy, however, it can cause ventilator-induced lung injury as a common complication. Thus, recruitment manoeuvres (RM) are applied to open the collapsed alveoli to ensure sufficient alveolar surface area for gas exchange. In the light of the fact that positive pressure ventilation is currently the standard treat- ment for improving pulmonary function, extrathoracic negative pressure is considered as an alter- native form of respiratory support. The aim of this study was to estimate the proinflammatory and oxidative response during MV and lung injury as well as the response after RM. All studied parameters were assessed at the following time points: T1-spontaneous breathing, T2- MV, T3- lung injury, T4 –RM. During MV (T2) elastase, MPO, ALP release, nitrite and superoxide generation significantly increased, whereas in later measurements a decrease in these values was noted. The MDA plasma concentration significantly (p<0.05) increased at T2, reaching a level of 13.30±0.87 nmol/ml; at other time points the values obtained were similar to the baseline value of 9.94±0.94 nmol/ml, whereas a gradual decrease in SOD activity at time T2-T4 points in comparison with the baseline value was found. During the study both neutrophil activity and oxi- dative stress indicate exacerbated response after MV and lung injury by bronchoalveolar lavage; however, extrathoracic negative pressure system as the MR ameliorates damaging changes which could further lead to serious lung injury.
The “second generation” of glyphosate-tolerant soybean (GT2 soybean) was developed through a different technique of insertion of the glyphosate-insensitive EPSPs gene, in comparison with “first generation” of glyphosate-tolerant soybean. However, there is not enough information available about glyphosate selectivity in GT2 soybean and the effects on the quality of seeds produced. The aim of this study was to evaluate tolerance to glyphosate and seed quality of soybean cultivar NS 6700 IPRO (GT2) with cp4-EPSPs and cry1Ac genes, after application at post-emergence (V4). The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replicates and seven treatments, or rates of glyphosate (0; 720; 1,440; 2,160; 2,880; 3,600; 4,320 g of acid equivalent − a.e. · ha−1). Assessments were performed for crop injury, SPAD index and variables related to agronomic performance and seed quality. A complementary trial with the same cultivar and treatments in a greenhouse was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications. Data analysis indicated no significant effect of glyphosate on V4 on agronomic performance and physiological quality of seeds, for two growing seasons. The soybean cultivar NS 6700 IPRO (GT2), with cp4-EPSPs and cry1Ac genes, was tolerant to glyphosate up to the maximum rate applied (4,320 g a.e. · ha−1) at post-emergence (V4). The quality of soybean seeds was not affected by glyphosate up to the maximum rate applied (4,320 g a.e. · ha−1) at post-emergence (V4).
Introduction: Acute subdural hematoma (aSDH) removal is one of the most commonly performed procedure in neurosurgery. Complications of those surgeries which require reoperation are associated with higher risk of poor treatment outcome. Th erefore we decided to analyse potential factors which might be associated with risk of early reoperation among patients who underwent aSDH surgery. Material and methods: We retrospectively analysed 328 patients treated due to aSDH. From their medical records we obtained detailed medical history. Early reoperation was defi ned as reoperation during the same hospital stay. To determine the potential predictors of early reoperation we used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: A total of 20 (6.09%) patients required early reoperation. Th ose patients had signifi cantly higher International Normalized Ratio (INR) upon admission (1.96 ± 2.55 vs. 1.26 ± 0.50; p <0.01) and signifi cantly higher Prothrombin Time (PT) upon admission (21.84 ± 27.10 vs. 13.40 ± 3.45; p <0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis aft er adjustment for all possible confounders higher INR (OR: 1.762; 95% CI: 1.017–22.840; p = 0.045) remained independently associated with higher risk of early reoperation among patients with aSDH. Conclusions: Patients with higher INR and PT upon admission are at higher risk of early reoperation. Higher INR is independently associated with higher risk of early reoperation among patients with aSDH.
In this paper, we present results indicating ozone effect on visible plants response as well as on other parameters, such as dry weight, chlorophyll concentration, cell membrane stability and salicylic acid content in bioindicator plants. Ozone-resistant and -sensitive clones of white clover (Trifolium repens L. cv. "Regal") were used in the investigations. The experiment was carried out in ambient air conditions of the Wielkopolska province (Poland) in 2005 growing season. The exposure led to changes in the level of plant response parameters that might be used as potential biomarkers of oxidative stress triggered by tropospheric ozone in ambient air conditions.
We examined whether allelochemical stress leads to increased lipoxygenase activity in roots of sweet maize (Zea mays L. ssp. saccharata), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and radish (Raphanus sativum L. var. radicula). The lipoxygenase activity of soluble and membrane-bound fractions was assessed in roots after exposure to ferulic and p-coumaric acids. Lipid peroxidation and membrane injury were determined as indicators of stress. Increased lipoxygenase activity of both studied fractions was followed by lipid peroxidation and plasma membrane injury. The results suggest the key role of lipoxygenase in plasma membrane injury during allelochemical stress caused by administration of hydroxycinnamic acids.