In this paper, the authors present methods for designing of non-circular gears, including internal and external gears with spur or helical teeth. Technology related issues that determine tooth profile calculation algorithm are described. The results presented in this paper can become groundwork for further investigations of other particular properties of non-circular gears, similar to investigations of spur, helical and bevel gears. Examples of such properties include kinematics and application of special purpose gears or issues related to strength, dynamics, tribology, etc.
There exist cases where precise simulations of contact forces do not allow modeling the gears as rigid bodies but a fully elastic description is needed. In this paper, a modally reduced elastic multibody system including gear contact based on a floating frame of reference formulation is proposed that allows very precise simulations of fully elastic gears with appropriately meshed gears in reasonable time even for many rotations. One advantage of this approach is that there is no assumption about the geometry of the gears and, therefore, it allows precise investigations of contacts between gears with almost arbitrary non-standard tooth geometries including flank profile corrections. This study presents simulation results that show how this modal approach can be used to efficiently investigate the interaction between elastic deformations and flank profile corrections as well as their influence on the contact forces. It is shown that the elastic approach is able to describe important phenomena like early addendum contact for insufficiently corrected profiles in dependence of the transmitted load. Furthermore, it is shown how this approach can be used for precise and efficient simulations of beveloid gears.
The article reports the results of a comparative analysis made for three novel unconventional gear wheel forging processes based on the authors’ patented [5,6,21] plastic forming methods developed chiefly for the purposes of extruding hollow products as well as valves and pins. These processes are distinguished by the fact that part of the tooling elements which are normally fixed during conventional forging are purposefully set in motion. This is intended to change the conditions of friction at the metal-tool contact surface and to induce additional thermal effects due to the transformation of the plastic deformation energy into thermal energy and, as a consequence, to improve the plastic flow of metal and to reduce the force parameters of the process.
The article proposes the implementation of a novel method of plastic forming of internal toothing in flange spline sleeves. A method being the subject of Polish patent application P.416772 has been used for this purpose, which involves a combination of the scheme of the direct extrusion of a cone hollow with the die press forming of the wall to obtain a flange. The entire process takes place in a single technological sequence. The operations come one after another, so that there is no need for reheating the stock or carrying out intermediate soft annealing. The proposed method is assumed to be an alternative to the operation of press forming of internal spline sleeve toothing in a conical die  and to the operation of swaging on rotary swaging machines . It is assumed that this method, too, is alternative to other technologies known from the literature and industrial practice, whose specifications and literature references will be indicated later on in this paper. Computer simulations of the flanged sleeve plastic forming process were performed using the commercial numerical program Forge®3D. During the numerical computations, the distributions of temperature fields were determined on the cross-section of the plastically formed product. The computations enabled also the visualization of the plastic flow of metal, especially in the toothing forming regions, and the determination of the energy and force parameters of the process.
The paper compares the geometrical surface structure of modelled tooth flanks of cylindrical gear obtained by a three dimensional simulation of gear generation with the geometrical surface structure of real gear obtained through chiselling by Fellows method. The paper presents the methodology of modelling tooth flanks of cylindrical gears in the CAD environment. The modelling consists in computer simulation of gear generation. The computer simulation of the gear generation was performed in the Mechanical Desktop environment. Metrological measurements of the real gear were carried out using a coordinated measuring machine and a profilometer.