This work attempts to reconstruct the culture that contributed to the philosophical way of thinking. My goal is to extract two important factors: religion carrying individual experience and the importance of certain ideas which are present in that culture. Sources of philosophical thinking can be found in the structure of polis. Only on its basis could the idea of the wise man and citizen as well as religion-oriented individual experience be raised. Greek polis paves the way for a new style of thinking by creating the conditions for its citizens to follow the ideal, regardless of the position they occupy in society. Sustainability, which should be a feature of a good citizen, is also the essence of society. Highly positioned wisdom as moral reflection tinged with religiosity allows thinking according to the laws of logos. Finally, the experience offered by the mystery cults leads to the transformation of their own existence and the emergence of a way of recognition of reality different than before. Undeniably, all the elements related to structure policies with its ideals contribute to the emergence of a new way of thinking in the form of philosophy. One could say that the philosophical objectivity is preceded by the subjectivity and rationality of its roots dating back to irrationality.
There is a growing body of research investigating the relationships among gratitude, self-esteem, and subjective well-being. However, there remains a scarcity of research examining the impact of self-esteem on the relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being within Arabic context. In this study, 300 Arabic speaking adults completed measurements of gratitude, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and positive and negative experiences. Participants’ ages ranged between 18 and 54 years with a mean age of 29.67 years (SD = 8.91). The correlation results revealed that there were significant positive relationships between gratitude, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and positive experience, while there were significant negative relationships between gratitude, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and negative experience. The results also showed that gratitude and self-esteem directly predicted subjective well-being. Additionally, using structural equation modeling, self-esteem exerted a mediation effect on the relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being. The results suggest that enhancing self-esteem could assist adults who have gratitude to experience greater subjective well-being. Using the source of self-esteem, researchers and professionals could improve one’s subjective wellbeing by employing various gratitude activities.
Personality, demographics and art experience proved to play an important role in reactions to visual art. Nevertheless, research attempts that take into account all those factors when determining predictors of aesthetic responses to different artistic styles are quite rare. The study presented here investigates predictors of aesthetic experience across figurative, abstract and contemporary paintings in individuals with varying expertise. Students enrolled in Sport, Humanities and the Arts programmes (N = 181) declared their art exposure and filled out personality measures (Big Five, alexithymia, need for closure). Next participants evaluated three paintings using a tool constructed by the authors to track various dimensions of aesthetic reactions (i.e. negative/positive affective responses, self-references, explicit knowledge and perceived mastery of the artwork). Reactions to figurative painting depended mostly on formal knowledge about arts, not personality traits. Aesthetic perception of abstract art rely not only on art exposure, but also on some individual characteristics (openness to experience, tolerance of ambiguity and ability to identify one’s own emotions and track their source). Reception of contemporary art was predicted mostly by art exposure variables and in the case of negative emotionality by ability to identify one’s own emotions and track their source. Both formal art education and art experience were stronger predictors of aesthetic responses than personality traits, for all art styles and dimensions of aesthetic experience. Personality predictors were significant mostly for abstract art. Personal interest in the arts seems to be as good predictor of aesthetic reactions as formal expertise.
Virtual reality (VR) technology now provides players with immersive and realistic experiences as never before. Spatial presence plays a crucial role in the introduction of immersive experience in a VR environment. Spatial presence is a special feeling of personal and physical presence in the displayed environment. In this study, we found that the first-person perspective (1PP) was more effective in raising the sense of spatial presence that induces immersive experience compared to the third-person perspective (3PP) in a VR shooting game. Moreover, eye blink rate was significantly higher in the 1PP compared with the 3PP. The 1PP game setting was more realistic than the 3PP setting, and may have raised participants’ sense of immersion and facilitated eye blink. These results indicate that eye blink rate is increased by the sense of spatial presence, and can be a good measure of subjective immersive experience in a VR environment. Neuroscientific evidences suggest that dopaminergic system is involved in such emotional experiences and physiological responses.
Theory and practice of sport psychology suggest that emotional and behavioral states of anxiety and aggression both affect athletic performance. The aim of the present study was the investigation of possible differentiation among water -polo male and female players according to their anxiety, anger and aggression levels. The sample consisted of 225 players (120 men, 105 women), between the ages of 17–39 years old. They completed the Greek versions of the: (a) CSAI -2, and (b) CAAS instruments. Results revealed differences among almost all questionnaire variables, between sport (athletic) experience’ groups. Finally, male athletes of the 2nd national division identified greater levels of anger and aggression in comparison to all other division groups. Overall, results shine some light on facets that play an important role and can affect the athletic performance of water -polo players.
In search of the invariant semantics of the preposition “da”: a cognitive analysis of the predicative context – The purpose of this article is to verify whether the semantic invariant of the preposition da [starting point allowing physical or mental movement] in the nominal context remains valid in the context of the verb. The analysis of the content of predicates that link to the preposition da will help to answer the question of the extent to which the choice of a preposition is determined by the knowledge of the experienced activities and/or the predicate itself (its selective features) or if it is the result of convention.
Introduction: The history of using performance-enhancing substances (PES) is long and it goes back to ancient times. At present, PES are employed at all levels of sport competition, starting from Olympic level contestants to individuals recreationally involved in various sports disciplines. Purpose: The objective of the study was examining the views on doping in sports in a group of physicians, together with evaluating the frequency of their contacts with this phenomenon, in their professional activities. Methods: The investigation was carried out using a validated questionnaire developed by the authors. Questionnaire included 34 questions divided into 6 sections. In total, 257 individuals participated in the study. The percentage of answers was 75.81%. Results: Among the responders, 96.50% believed that using PES by sports competitors represented unethical behavior. 42% participants declared that they met doping problem during their professional career. Almost one-third of the physicians (28.79%) declared that during their work, they consulted patient suffering from adverse side eff ects resulting from using PES. Conclusions: In Poland, physicians regard using PES as unethical behavior. They believe that a health care system professional should participate in counteracting doping in sports. Physicians — regardless of their specialty — are also exposed to PES-related problems in their professional work. In view of the above facts and the consistently increasing popularity of PES, extending the knowledge in this field among physicians seems to be of importance to allow for their offering better medical services to their patients.
In the article the author discusses peculiarities of three areas of psychologists’ professional activity: conducting scientific research, educating new generations of psychologists, and having a private practice. He particularly stresses the significance of empirical testability of theories for correct and ethical assessment practice (according to Evidence-Based Assessment standard) and therapeutic practice (according to Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology standard). The author also explores the cultural immersion of psychological activity.
The impact of musical experience on results concerning sound perception in selected auditory tasks, such as pitch discrimination, pitch-timbre categorization and pitch memorization for blind and visually impaired children and teenagers is discussed. Subjects were divided into three groups: of those with no experience of music, with small musical experience and with substantial musical experience. The blind and visually impaired subjects were investigated, while sighted persons formed reference groups. To date no study has described impact of musical experience on results of such experiments for blind and visually impaired children and teenagers. Our results suggest that blind persons with musical experience may be more sensitive to frequency differences and differences in timbre between two signals as well as may have better short-term auditory memory than blind people with no musical experience. Musical experience of visually impaired persons does not necessary lead to better performance in all conducted auditory tasks.
Pilgrimages to the Holy Land have been an old tradition in the Russian culture. For believers, places related to the life and passion of Christ have been an important element of history and geography of salvation since the beginnings of Christianity in Ruthenia. The paper is an attempt to present the fi rst pilgrimage of Andrey Muraviev (1806–1874), a religious writer, theologian, poet, playwright, church and state activist, to Palestine as a personal religious experience and its refl ection in a literary work of art. The pilgrimage to the East became a breakthrough moment in Muraviev’s life and resulted in the writing of "A journey to Holy places in 1830" (Путешествие ко Святым местам в 1830 году), which initiated the religious stage of his writings and became a great success. Although the poet did not call his journey a pilgrimage, such was indeed its nature. Visiting places important to the history of salvation, he participated in services and sacramental life of the Church.
In this study, the concepts of simultaneous user association and resource allocation in non-orthogonal multiple access systems have been investigated. Subscribers are randomly distributed in them. In the paper, a novel cooperative energy harvesting model is introduced so that user equipment near to the base stations acts as relay for further subscribers. In order to consider the local limitations of alternative energy resources, it was assumed that alternative energy would be shared among the base stations by means of the dynamic grid network. In this architecture, non-orthogonal resource allocation and user association frameworks should be reconfigured because conventional schemes use orthogonal multiple access. Hence, this paper suggests a novel approach to joint optimum cooperative power allocation and user association techniques to achieve a maximum degree of energy efficiency for the whole system in which the quality of experience parameters are assumed to be bounded during multi-cell multicast sessions. The model was also modified to develop joint multi-layered resource control and user association that can distinguish the service pattern in cooperative energy heterogeneous systems with non-orthogonal multiple access to obtain more resource optimality than in the current approaches. The effectiveness of the suggested approach is confirmed by numerical results. Also, the results reveal that non-orthogonal multiple access can provide greater energy efficiency than the conventional orthogonal multiple access approaches such as e.g. the MAX-SINR scheme.