Quaternary sediments in the southwestern Nordenskiöld Land are described with particular emphasis put on distribution of erratics against their basset matrices. Results confirm previous suppositions on directions of past glacial advances from east westwards. The latter separated by sea submergences, caused translocations of the rock material. This process was most intensive in upstreams of large mountain valleys.
They are a vital source of information about the glaciations that covered significant areas of Poland in the Pleistocene. They intrigue not only scientists, but also geotourists. So why do glacial erratics so frequently end up vandalized?
The present paper contains the results of geomorphological investigations carried out by the author during the llnd Polar Expedition of the Scientific Society of the Students of the Department of Geography and Regional Studies, Warsaw University, to the northwest part of Nordenskiöld Land (West Spitsbergen) in the summer of 1980. The present elaboration discusses the glacial forms and deposits which arose during previous stays of the glacier on this area. Particular attention was paid to the disposition of erratics, which permitted the determination of the directions of the transgression of the young Quaternary glaciations.
The glacial and glacio-marine sediments of the Oligocene Polonez Cove and Early Miocene Cape Melville Formations on King George Island (South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica) yield numerous erratic boulders of limestone, in particular archaeocyathan-algal boundstone, oolite, onkolite, and biomicrite. Some of these boulders are fossiliferous and contain archaeocyathans, sponges, inarticulate brachiopods, monoplacophorans, gastropods, hyolithids, trilobites, ostracodes and such enigmatic fossils as: Chancelloria, Coleolella. Dailyatia. Halkieria. Hadimopanella. Hyolithellus. "Lenastella", Mongolitubulus and Torellella. The small shelly fauna appears to be Early Cambrian (Botomian) in age. The boulders of fossiliferous limestones resemble the rocks of the Shackleton Limestone unit in the central Transantarctic Mts. The lithological composition of the boulder assemblage brought to King George Island during the Tertiary glaciations suggests that the Cambrian outcrops around the Weddell Sea are the source of the erratics. The Antarctic Lower Cambrian fauna resembles its analogues in Australia and Asia.