Multidisciplinary research was carried on in 1978/79 in the region of Admiralty Bay and Arctowski Station. This area is representative of the near-shore Antarctic ecosystem. It is characterized by a number of local traits such as climate, ice conditions, hydrology, hydrochemistry and hydrodynamics. Estimates were made of primary production and abundance of zooplankton in Admiralty Bay and of the biomass and quantity of food taken by avi-fauna and pinnipeds. Main routes and directions of transport of mineral and organic matter are shown; some of them have been estimated quantitatively. A continuous inflow of organic matter from Bransfield Strait is necessary for the summer functionning of Admiralty Bay.
An investigation of cyanobacterial microflora in the northern, deglaciated part of James Ross Island in the NW part of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica , was conducted during the Antarctic summer season 2005-2006. Five main types of habitats with dominant cyanobacterial assemblages were analyzed (soils, seepages, streams, wetted rocky walls and lakes), and main ecological variables were measured (pH, temperature, intensity of global radiation, conductivity and nutrients), as a background for further ecological and ecophysiological studies. The definable traditional cyanobacterial morphospecies were identified.
The debate between Ludwik Fleck (microbiologist and philosopher of science) and Tadeusz Bilikiewicz (historian and philosopher of medicine) took place shortly before the outbreak of World War II and remained virtually unnoticed until 1978. A wider recognition of their exchange was possible only after the English and German translations appeared. Basically, the polemics concerned understanding of the concept of style and influence that the environment exerted on scientific activity and its products. The polemic started with the review of Bilikiewicz’s book Die Embryologie im Zeitalter des Barock und des Rokoko (1932) where the historical account of the development of embryology in the early and late Baroque period was interwoven with bold sociological remarks. The commentators of the debate were quick to notice that the claims made by Fleck at that time were crucial for understanding of his position, especially because they let to interpret his views in a non-relativist way. While the importance of the controversy was univocally acknowledged, its assessment so far has been defective for two reasons. First, for decades the views of Bilikiewicz were known only from the short and rather critical presentation given by Fleck and this put their discussion into an inadequate perspective. Second, for over 40 years it remained a complete puzzle what prompted their exchange of views. This paper closes these gaps. Thus, on the one hand, I reconstruct the central issue of the disputation between Fleck and Bilikiewicz and situate it within the context of Bilikiewicz’s views. On the other hand – and this is more important – I try to explain the origin of their debate by quoting some recently discovered and unpublished archival materials. A review of their correspondence gives me an opportunity to advance some hypotheses about the aims and hopes connected with their project but also possible reasons for its failure.
Hornsund and Kongsfjorden are two similar-sized Arctic fjords on the West coast of Spitsbergen. They are influenced by cold coastal Arctic water (Hornsund) and warmer Atlantic water (Kongsfjorden). Environmental conditions affect the timing, quantity, spatial distribution (horizontal and vertical) of spring and summer blooms of protists as well as the taxonomic composition of those assemblages. Here, we compile published data and unpublished own measurement from the past two decades to compare the environmental factors and primary production in two fjord systems. Kongsfjorden is characterized by a deeper euphotic zone, higher biomass and greater proportion of autotrophic species. Hornsund seems to obtain more nutrients due to the extensive seabird colonies and exhibits higher turbidity compared to Kongsfjorden. The annual primary production in the analysed fjords ranges from 48 g C m-2 y-1 in Kongsfjorden to 216 g C m-2 y-1 in Hornsund, with a dominant component of microplankton (90%) followed by macrophytes and microphytobenthos.
The relationships between epiphytic fauna and habitat conditions were studied in three oxbow lakes of Wieprz River (eastern Poland). Fauna associated with macrophytes showed low species richness (range 8–11 taxa dependently on site and season) usually observed in lakes of high water trophy. Densities of fauna were high (mean 71–5250 ind. 100 g DW-1), typical for shallow lakes with well developed submerged vegetation. In the domination structure prevailed Gastropoda (relative abundance 23–100%) and Chironomidae (relative abundance 8–87%). Re-dundancy analysis showed the significance of four environmental variables – temperature, dis-solved oxygen, Ptot and P-PO4 as determinants of abundance of epiphytic fauna.