The authors present a numerical study of a start-up of a boiler with a thick-walled element subjected to thermomechanical loading. The significance of calculations of real heat transfer coefficients has been demonstrated. Fluid dynamics, mechanical transient thermal and static structural calculations have been conducted in both separate and coupled modes. Strain-stress analyses prove that the effect of the heat transfer coefficient changing in time and place in comparison with a constant one as recommended by standards is the key factor of fatigue calculations.
Miniature heat exchangers are used to provide higher cooling capacity for new technologies. This means a reduction in their size and cost but the identical power. The paper presents the method for determination of boiling heat transfer coefficient for a rectangular minichannel of 0.1 mm depth, 40 mm width and 360 mm length with asymmetric heating. Experimental research has focused on the transition from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling, i.e., the zone of boiling incipience. The ‘boiling front’ location has been determined from the temperature distribution of the heated wall obtained from liquid crystal thermography. The experiment has been carried out with R-123, mass flux 220 kg/(m2s), pressure at the channel inlet 340 kPa. Local values of heat transfer coefficient were calculated on the basis of empirical data from the experiment following the solution of the two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problem. This problem has been solved with the use of the finite element method in combination with Trefftz functions. Temperature approximates (linear combinations of Trefftz functions) strictly fulfill the governing equations. In presented method the inverse problem is solved in the same way as the direct problem. The results confirmed that considerable heat transfer enhancement takes place at boiling incipience in the minichannel flow boiling. Moreover, under subcooling boiling, local heat coefficients exhibit relatively low values.
This experimental study reveals the effects of CaF2, FeMn and NiO additions to the base fluxes on tensile strength and percentage elongation of the weld metal. The aim of this study is to develop suitable flux for mild steel for high tensile strength, impact strength and ductility. Bead on plate welds were made using submerged arc welding process. Mathematical model for percentage elongation and UTS of mild steel welds were made. The elements transfer to the welds have been correlated with the above mechanical performance characteristics. The effect of oxygen content on weld elongation and UTS also has been deduced. This study shows that CaF2 and NiO are the significant factors for tensile strength while FeMn is not significant for tensile strength. However, for elongation besides CaF2, the interaction of CaF2 and FeMn was also found significant. The effects of basicity index of the flux and carbon equivalent of the welds on tensile strength and percentage elongation of the welds have also been evaluated.