This paper addresses the tensile and flexural strength of HPC (high performance concrete). The aim of the paper is to analyse the efficiency of models proposed in different codes. In particular, three design procedures from: the ACI 318 , Eurocode 2  and the Model Code 2010  are considered. The associations between design tensile strength of concrete obtained from these three codes and compressive strength are compared with experimental results of tensile strength and flexural strength by statistical tools. Experimental results of tensile strength were obtained in the splitting test. Based on this comparison, conclusions are drawn according to the fit between the design methods and the test data. The comparison shows that tensile strength and flexural strength of HPC depend on more influential factors and not only compressive strength.
The paper presents the results of the energy analysis of the conversion of solar radiation energy into electrical energy in Polish weather conditions. The effect of sunlight and working temperature on the photovoltaic module on its power curve P = f(U) is shown. STC and NOCT conditions are described for which the manufacturers specify the parameters of the photovoltaic modules. The manufacturers of photovoltaic panels should give the PPV = f(E) characteristic for the different values of the operating temperature of the modules. An analysis of the economic efficiency of a photovoltaic power plant investment of 1 MWp taking the current legal regulations for the three variants into account was presented. Variant I – the investor benefits from the support of public aid of operational only, Variant II – the investor benefits from the support of public aid for investment in the amount of PLN 1 million, Variant III – the investor benefits from the support of public aid for investment in the amount of PLN 2 million. For all variants, indicators for assessing the economic effectiveness of the investment and the value of the auction price from the maximum price to the price at which the project loses its profitability are determined.
The need for effective and rational use of land, protection, and preservation of its qualitative state (as the agricultural land soil) is due to some negative details, namely, more than a third of the land is eroded, half of which are black soil in particular, which have an average level of nutrient supply, a lot of contaminated abandoned or overdented land. The acuteness of this problem, which has developed with regard to the protection and preservation of the land qualitative state, has become particularly relevant. The solution to this problem requires truly effective methods of influence. One of such methods is the surveillance of ecological and economic monitoring of land. The article analyzes the ecological and economic factors and factors influencing the monitoring and surveillance of land in Ukraine. Perspectives and objectives for improvements in land monitoring are highlighted. The paper discloses a theoretical synthesis and new approaches to solving the problem of environmental management, which can participate in the development of innovative economic and environmental factors of rational land use, which will contribute to enhancing the transition of Ukraine to the model of sustainable land use. The purpose of this work is a scientific analysis of the various organizational factors of monitoring and surveillance of agricultural land in relation to the current legislation in Ukraine.
The modified air gap torque method to determine the efficiency of squirrelcage induction motor was presented. of testing which continues the authors' work on application of AGT method to estimating induction motor's efficiency are discussed. The proposed method is verified in a number of selected low-power motors.
In the paper a calculation methodology of isentropic efficiency of a compressor and turbine in a gas turbine installation on the basis of polytropic efficiency characteristics is presented. A gas turbine model is developed into software for power plant simulation. There are shown the calculation algorithms based on iterative model for isentropic efficiency of the compressor and for isentropic efficiency of the turbine based on the turbine inlet temperature. The isentropic efficiency characteristics of the compressor and the turbine are developed by means of the above mentioned algorithms. The gas turbine development for the high compressor ratios was the main driving force for this analysis. The obtained gas turbine electric efficiency characteristics show that an increase of pressure ratio above 50 is not justified due to the slight increase in the efficiency with a significant increase of turbine inlet combustor outlet and temperature.
Lean has established itself as the primordial approach to obtain operational excellence. Its simple and intuitive techniques focus on reducing lead time through continuous improvement, involving all levels of employees in the organization. However, the rate of successful implementations has remained low. This paper contributes to the understanding of continuous improvement in a Lean context, by analyzing a database of almost 10.000 improvement actions, from 85 companies, covering the time frame 2010–2018. It discusses categories of actions, their impact and cost, as well as key characteristics of the companies. It proposes an objective criterion to identify “success” and “failure” in Lean implementation and tries to link these to operational results. It is probably the ﬁrst time an analysis of this magnitude on the subject has been performed.
The energy efficiency of photovoltaic modules is one of the most important aspects in energetic and economic aspects of the project related to system installations. The efficiency of modules and the electricity produced by photovoltaic conversion in solar modules is affected by many factors, both internal, related to the module structure itself and its technical and external factors related to the energy infrastructure, which includes: cabling, inverters, climate conditions prevailing at the micro-installation location and the orientation and angle of inclination of the solar modules. The installation of photovoltaic modules should be preceded by an energy efficiency analysis, which will help to indicate the optimal solution adapted to the given conditions. The article presents a comparative analysis of the amount of energy produced under real and simulated conditions. Analyzes were made on the basis of research carried out in the Wind and Solar Energy Laboratory located at the AGH University of Science and Technology, data from solar irradiation data-bases and computer software for estimating energy resources. The study examined the correlation of the solar irradiation on the modules and the amount of electricity generated in the photovoltaic module. The electricity produced by the module was compared under real conditions and simulated based on two sources of data. The comparison and analysis of the amount of energy of the module were also made, taking simulated different angles of the module’s inclination into account.
This publication presents an assessment of the economic efficiency of a hypothetical installation for the gasification of the municipal and industrial waste for the production of syngas used subsequently for the production of energy or chemical products. The first part of the work presents an example of a technological system for the energo-chemical processing of coal mud and municipal waste, based on the gasification process using a fluidized bed reactor. A hypothetical installation consists of two main blocks: a fuel preparation unit and a gasification unit. In the fuel preparation installation, reception operations take place, storage, and then grinding, mixing, drying and transporting fuel to the gasification unit. In the gasification installation, fuel gasification, oxygen production, cooling and purification of raw process gas and ash treatment are carried out. The following key assumptions regarding the gasification process, as well as the capital expenditures and operating costs related to the process, were estimated. Consequently, based on the method of discounted cash flows, the unit cost of generating energy contained in the synthesis gas (cost of energy, COE) was determined and the results were interpreted. In order to obtain an acceptable efficiency of the gasification process for waste fuels for the production of alternative fuel (process gas), it is necessary to supplement the mixture of waste coal and coal mud with the RDF. In this case, the unit cost of fuel measured by the PLN/GJ index is lower than in the case of hard coal and comparable with brown coal. The use of coal mud for the production of process gas in an economically efficient way is possible only in the case of changes in the legal system allowing for charging fees for the utilization of industrial waste – coal mud.
The Stirling engine type alpha is composed of two cylinders (expansion space E and compression space C), regenerator that forms the space between the cylinders and the buffer space (under the pistons). Before the start-up and as a result of long-term operation, the average pressure in the working space (above the pistons) and in the buffer space is the same. However, in the initial phase of operation, the average pressure in the working space is different then the average pressure in the buffer space depending on the crankshaft starting position (starting angle). This, in turn, causes a large variation in the starting torque. An additional unfavorable factor caused by a large variation in the course of the indicated torque is the rotational speed variation and the formation of torsional vibrations in the drive system. After some time, depending on the quality of the engine piston sealing, the average pressure in the working and buffer space will equalize. The occurrence of the above-described phenomenon affects the selection of the starting electric motor, which can be significantly reduced, when the crankshaft starting position is optimized (the starting torque is several times greater than the average torque occurring in the generator operation mode). This paper presents the analysis of the impact of the crankshaft starting position on the course of the indicated torque and the resulting start-up energy. Starting the engine at an unfavorable position of the crankshaft may, in extreme cases, increase the starting torque even three times.
In this paper, selected aspects of energy efficiency are shown. The European Union regulations in area of energy efficiency such as Directive 2012/27/EU, are discussed. The national legal regulations which describe energy efficiency such as the Energy Efficiency Act are presented. Principles concerning the obligation of energy savings and energy audits of enterprises are described. National, regional and local programs and measures concerning the improvement of energy efficiency are performed. These are horizontal measures and energy efficiency measures in: industry, transport, the buildings of public institutions and energy generation and supplies. National economy energy efficiency is shown. The energy intensity indicators (primary, final) and rate of their changes in last years are performed. Moreover, directions of undertakings connected with the possible future reduction in energy intensity of the national economy, are defined. An analysis of energy efficiency measures and solutions for the improvement of energy efficiency, especially in industry and households, is performed. The improvement of economy energy intensity indicators constitutes the most effective solution which brings significant economic, technical and environmental benefits such as an increase in economic innovation and its competitiveness, the improvement of the energy supply security level, a reduction in the consumption of natural resources and a reduction of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The conclusions contain an analysis of the present level of energy efficiency in Poland and the perspectives of its increase in the future along with the benefits connected with it.
Exergy analysis is a powerful thermodynamic tool and it helps in computing the actual output of a system. It helps the researchers to optimize the roughened solar air heater design to compensate the present and also the future needs. In this study, investigation on exergetic performance evaluation of a solar air heater with W-shaped roughened absorber surface analytically by employing mathematical model and the results obtained are compared with smooth plate solar air heater under same operating conditions. The exergetic efficiency curves has been plotted as a function of different values of Reynolds number and temperature rise parameter for different roughness parameters. The maximum augmentation in the exergetic efficiency of the solar air heater with W-shaped roughened surface as compared to solar air heater with smooth surface has been obtained as 51% corresponding to the relative roughness height of 0.03375 and the rib angle of attack about 60◦. Based on the exergetic efficiency the suitable design parameters of solar air heater with W-shaped roughened are determined.
Technical and operational energy efficiency measures for ships, such as the energy efficiency design index (EEDI) and ship energy efficiency management plan (SEEMP), aim to improve the energy efficiency of international shipping. Studies show that absolute emissions from international shipping will increase despite their mandatory application. For this reason, it is important to assess the impact on the effectiveness of the application of mandatory efficiency measures on future emissions. Further measures are being developed at the International Maritime Organization to control emissions from ships, in particular greenhouse gases (GHG) that contribute to climate change. In January 2019, a system of collecting fuel consumption data by ships (Ship Fuel Oil Consumption Database) was introduced. Energy efficiency measures promoted by the IMO Maritime Environment Protection Committee, initially as facultative, then as mandatory, show strong preventive character. The mandatory use of energy efficiency measures by ships as well as the development of energy efficiency management policies by shipping companies contributes to climate protection and adaptation to climate change.
This paper provides some information about thermoelectric technology. Some new materials with improved figures of merit are presented. These materials in Peltier modules make it possible to generate electric current thanks to a temperature difference. The paper indicates possible applications of thermoelectric modules as interesting tools for using various waste heat sources. Some zero-dimensional equations describing the conditions of electric power generation are given. Also, operating parameters of Peltier modules, such as voltage and electric current, are analyzed. The paper shows chosen characteristics of power generation parameters. Then, an experimental stand for ongoing research and experimental measurements are described. The authors consider the resistance of a receiver placed in the electric circuit with thermoelectric elements. Finally, both the analysis of experimental results and conclusions drawn from theoretical findings are presented. Voltage generation of about 1.5 to 2.5 V for the temperature difference from 65 to 85 K was observed when a bismuth telluride thermoelectric couple (traditionally used in cooling technology) was used.
This paper presents a method for assessing the degree of approaching the paper output of the Clausius-Rankine cycle to the Carnot cycle. The computations to illustrate its use were performed for parameters characteristic of the current state of development of condensing power plants as well as in accordance with predicted trends for their further enhancing. Moreover there are presented computations of energy dissipation in the machines and devices working in such a cycle.
In case of the private procurement auctions the entrepreneurs are not forced to limit themselves to the standard auction rules, and in practice one can observe many hybrid or quasi-auction mechanisms spontaneously introduced. The paper analyzes two of them, which start as a first-price sealed-bid auction, followed by a run-off in a form of an English auction, and which differ by the transparency of rules concerning the initiation of the second stage. The focus of the paper is on the analysis of the price and allocative efficiency of these mechanisms, in order to determine whether they can serve as an alternative to the standard auction rules. Theoretical analyses are followed by the laboratory experiments, which demonstrate that the mechanisms under study are characterized by both high price and allocative efficiency, and therefore could be considered an interesting substitute of the standard auction rules.
The article deals with the subject of an important component of energy management, which is the performance of energy efficiency audits in companies. Using the case study analysis, the role of the energy audit was analyzed in the context of improvement of energy efficiency in selected production companies. The essence of legal requirements following from the implementation of the amended Energy Efficiency Act was presented. Specifically, problems and challenges, which refer to the method of implementation of the audit obligation in economic practice, were discussed. Furthermore, the issue of quality and usefulness (in the decision-making process) of prepared reports was raised. It was found that there were indications to claim that the obligatory energy audit of companies is not an instrument for the improvement of energy efficiency, which is always used optimally. The fault in this situation is partly attributable to the state, audit bodies and the company management. In this case, not only is the ineffective communication an issue here, but also the insufficient level of knowledge regarding energy management, as well as haste. The amendment of the Energy Efficiency Act (within just one year) imposed the necessity to conduct an energy audit on a specific group of companies. In principle, because all the entities, to which the obligation referred, had to take actions almost at the same time, numerous issues appeared. Some managers learned about the obligation to conduct the audit from companies who themselves had come out with a proposal to carry it out. This proves the lack of the proper information flow between the government administration authorities and the companies. Again, it turned out that practitioners did not keep pace with the implementation of actions, which were a consequence of numerous (and not always well thought-out) changes in the law. Haste in the fulfillment of the statutory obligation affected a high price spread of the bids sent during tenders, related to the performance of an energy audit. Bureaucratic regulations regarding tenders became another obstacle in the correct performance of the tasks. The entrepreneurs themselves, without clear guidelines on what to expect after the performed energy audit and what a report should look like, on many occasions, selected the “cheapest” bid – not always thinking too much about the qualitative consequences of such a decision. Some certifying bodies – taking advantage of an opportunity and the satisfactory combination of circumstances – offered unprofessional audit services of questionable quality. In the presented conditions, it is difficult to expect real, systemic and desirable results (economically, ecologically and socially) with regards to the energy efficiency both in the micro-, meso- and macr-economic scale. It is worth considering changes in the Energy Efficiency Act and spread the obligation to perform audits over different years according to clearly defined (in cooperation with business) criteria. If relevant actions are not taken, the situation of a temporary Eldorado on the market of energy audits will repeat in 4 years. Again, the consequence may be the poor quality and questionable usefulness of reports from energy audits of companies both at the business level and the ecological-political level. It is necessary to counteract all forms of unfair competition to interdisciplinary and specialist bodies which take actions to improve the energy efficiency of organisations. The creation of appropriate business conditions will have a positive impact on the improvement of energy efficiency. In this context, it is necessary to take actions, which enable the optimization of both the process of the implementation of obligatory legal regulations and voluntary (industry) norms and standards.
Recently, the search for new effective energy production solutions has been focused on the production of electricity using renewable and environmentally friendly carriers. This resulted in an increased interest in PV cells and cogeneration systems. The article looks at the main factors affecting their operational parameters against the background of the development history of subsequent generations of PV cells. Average daily solar radiation and wind velocity in Lodz were characterized. The research was done on a static and tracking system with a total peak power of 15 kWp and a 30 kW microturbine. PV panels are installed on the building of the Institute of Electrical Power Engineering of the Lodz University of Technology and they work as part of DERLab. A microturbine is inside the building. Energy measurements were carried out in 2016 giving grounds for the analysis of energy efficiency and financial analysis of the energy supply in buildings. Energy yields in the static and tracking system as well as percentage coverage of electricity from PV cells and microturbines were assessed. The distribution of monthly savings, annual savings of energy costs and the payback time of the investment costs of the systems subject to the test were determined. The research we have done allows us to say that the energy produced by follow-up modules is about 3 times greater than that generated in stationary modules. On the other hand, the annual savings of energy costs using gas micro-turbines are about 10 times higher than those of lagging panels. The analysis shows that it is possible to determine the profitability of the microturbine and photovoltaic panels use despite large financial outlays. The payback period of investment outlays is about 12 years when using the installation throughout the year.
Work on increasing the efficiency of heat exchangers used in car air conditioning systems may lead to a partial change in the construction of refrigeration systems. One of such changes is the use of smaller gas coolers, which directly translates into a reduction in the production costs of the entire system. The article presents the use of computational fluid dynamics methods to simulate the impact of changing the shape of an internal heat exchanger on the cooling efficiency with R744 as the refrigerant. Internal heat exchangers with different geometry of the outer channels were subjected to numerical analysis. The obtained results of calculations show temperature changes in inner and outer channels on the length of the heat exchanger.
Pollution, climate change and energy security are significant problems. Climate-disrupting fossil fuels are being replaced by clean and non-depletable sources of energy. It requires major changes to energy infrastructures and strong support for promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. Renewable energy is emerging as a driver of inclusive economic growth and reinforcing energy security. Public entities have to promote renewable energy development by implementing cost-effective national support schemes. By acting at national-level, several barriers to public and private investments could be tackled, addressing the lack of coordination between various authorising bodies at national level and stimulatng the administrative capacity to implement energy projects. It should be effective in promoting transparency for investors and others economic operators. In Poland there is a lack of regulatory policies creating incentives for decentralised energy. Market-based support schemes are still needed for small-scale self-consumption system. Currently operating solutions have been shown in the contrast of the ones applied abroad. The development of clean energy technologies depends on many factors. The author identified few most important ones, mainly financial, regulatory issues, social, environmental and characterized them in this work. The article presents the recommendations of regulatory framework and some proposals for energy cluster based policy’s tools, the introduction of which would significantly facilitate the wider renewable energy uses in Poland.
Using renewable energy sources for electricity production is based on the processing of primary energy occurring in the form of sun, wind etc., into electrical energy. Economic viability using those sources in small power plants strongly depends on the support system, based mainly on financial instruments. Micro-installations, by using special instruments dedicated to the prosumer market may become more and more interesting not only in terms of environmental energy, but also financial independence. In the paper, the term hybrid power plant is understood to mean a production unit generating electricity or electricity and heat in the process of energy production, in which two or more renewable energy sources or energy sources other than renewable sources are used. The combination of the two energy sources is to their mutual complementarity, to ensure the continuity of the electricity supply. The ideal situation would be if both sources of energy included in the hybrid power plant continuously covered the total demand for energy consumers. Unfortunately, due to the short-term and long-term variability of weather conditions, such a balance is unattainable. The paper assesses the possibility of balancing the hybrid power plant in daily and monthly periods. Basic types of power plants and hybrid components and system support micro-installations were characterized. The support system is based particularly on a system of feed-in tariffs and the possibility of obtaining a preferential loan with a subsidy (redemption of part of the loan size). Then, an analysis of energy and economic efficiency for a standard set of hybrid micro-installations consisting of a wind turbine and photovoltaic panels with a total power of 5 kW, were presented. Fourteen variants of financing, economic efficiency compared with the use of the method of the simple payback period were assumed.
As a result of introduction of the Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, all of the EU member states are obliged to introduce legal regulations for energy performance of all newly constructed buildings. The key aim is to achieve close to zero energy use starting from the year 2021. Estimating effectiveness of the actions and the new possibilities requires an analysis of the multiple criteria. They comprise both the current conditions as well as the changes that have occurred in the recent years due to new legislation, the eff ects of the subsidies and the development of the housing stock. This paper presents a broad overview and diagnosis of current situation. The development of the energy-efficient and passive housing in Poland is considered in the context of financial incentives, availability of design knowledge and building technology as well as the role of the green building certification.
Architecture is a discipline combining aesthetics with technology. This paper is focusing on the relationship between aesthetics and energy efficiency in architecture with special interest in solar collectors and photovoltaic panels as technological equipment of the buildings. The paper takes into consideration the present situation and architectural development in northern Poland, with some input basing on European experiences. The paper defi nes aesthetics and effi ciency in the field of architectural design as well as the use of public and urban spaces. Authors present also some case studies regarding the use of solar panels in selected architectural examples. The paper ends with summary and some conclusions including the need for further research in the field of architectural design, technology and product design, as well as the perception of urbanised spaces and the important field of economic and financial factors connected to the topic.
Assumptions of the major political and legal documents of the European Union, dedicated to energy efficiency and energy performance of buildings provide the Member States with relevant instruments supporting improvement of the ambient air qualityby dissemination of measures reducing energy demand and promotion of renewable energysources. Mainstreaming EU legislation into national regulations constitutes initial stage of the long term process of supporting implementation of energy efficiency measures. Experience in the improvement of energy performance of the residential buildings revealslimited efficiency of the measures implemented up to date, which results in significantair pollution of Polish cities. The national Action Plans had adopted a limited scope of recommendations included in the EU directives, hence the process meets significant challenges.The article describes adaptation of the relevant EU directives as well as the National Urban Policy in terms of the potential to effectively address faced challenges.
The article presents current state of the structure of hard coal enrichment plants in Poland, taking the capacity, the range of grain enrichment and the type of equipment used into account. This data were presented in a tabular format for each Polish Coal Company operating on the Polish market. The article was also present simplified: flow sheet of the steam and coking coal enrichment system. Based on the presented data, the planned needs and trends were described in terms of increasing production efficiency, minimizing water consumption and safety of work. A list of research and development works which must be undertaken were also presented as well as factors determining the technological development of the processing plants.
This paper presents the origins of marine steam turbine application on liquefied natural gas carriers. An analysis of alternative propulsion plant trends has been made. The more efficient ones with marine diesel engines gradually began to replace the less efficient plants. However, because of many advantages of the steam turbine, further development research is in progress in order to achieve comparable thermal efficiency. Research has been carried out in order to achieve higher thermal efficiency throughout increasing operational parameters of superheated steam before the turbine unit; improving its efficiency to bring it nearer to the ideal Carnot cycle by applying a reheating system of steam and multi stage regenerative boiler feed water heating. Furthermore, heat losses of the system are reduced by: improving the design of turbine blades, application of turbine casing and bearing cooling, as well as reduction in steam flow resistance in pipe work and maneuvering valves. The article identifies waste energy sources using the energy balance of a steam turbine propulsion plant applied on the liquefied natural gas carrier which was made out basing on results of a passive operation experiment, using the measured and calculated values from behavioral equations for the zero-dimensional model. Thermodynamic functions of state of waste heat fluxes have been identified in terms of their capability to be converted into usable energy fluxes. Thus, new ways of increasing the efficiency of energy conversion of a steam turbine propulsion plant have been addressed.