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Abstract

Luminescence dating is based mainly on the dosimetric properties of quartz and feldspar. These minerals are among the most popular found on Earth, resulting in the possibility of using luminescence methods in practically any environment. Currently, quartz remains the best recognized mineral in terms of dosimetric properties, particularly with regards to results obtained for quartz grains, which are regarded as being the most reliable in luminescence dating. Supporters of luminescence methods are constantly growing, however, these groups do not always have sufficient knowledge to avoid even the most basic of issues that may be encountered overall – from the process of sampling through to the awareness of what a single luminescence result represents. The present paper provides an overview of several practical aspects of luminescence dating such as correct sampling procedures and all necessary information regarding the calculation of the dose rate and equivalent dose with particular reference to potential problems that occur when the age of the sample is being determined. All these aspects are crucial for obtaining a reliable dating result, on the other hand, they remain a potential source of uncertainty.
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Abstract

This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of sublethal doses of glyphosate on physiological parameters of a common ornamental plant Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta). The herbicide was applied in the following doses: 720 g ⋅ ha–1 (standard field dose), 144 g ⋅ ha–1, 28.8 g ⋅ ha–1, and 14.4 g ⋅ ha–1, in the form of a spraying treatment of plants in a specialist spraying chamber. The net assimilation rate and leaf greenness index were then determined. Herbicide application in the sublethal doses, i.e. below 720 g ⋅ ha–1, caused disorders in both analyzed physiological parameters of plants. The glyphosate dose of 144 g ⋅ ha–1 elicited transient disorders in the leaf greenness index. In turn, the use of the lower doses (28.8 g ⋅ ha–1 and 14.4 g ⋅ ha–1) caused a short-term increase in the net photosynthesis rate in the plants which was accompanied by a decreased value of the leaf greenness index. Study results demonstrated the effect of sublethal doses of glyphosate as a stress factor in parameters associated with the process of photosynthesis in plants.
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