In this paper, the applications of the multivariate data analysis and optimization on vibration signals from compressors have been tested on the assembly line to identify nonconforming products. The multivariate analysis has wide applicability in the optimization of weather forecasting, agricultural experiments, or, as in this case study, in quality control. The techniques of discriminant analysis and linear program were used to solve the problem. The acceleration and velocity signals used in this work were measured in twenty-five rotating compressors, of which eleven were classified as good baseline compressors and fourteen with manufacturing defects by the specialists in the final acoustic test of the production line. The results obtained with the discriminant analysis separated the conforming and nonconforming groups with a significance level of 0.01, which validated the proposed methodology.
This study illustrates the benefits of statistical techniques to analyze spatial and temporal variations in water quality. In this scope water quality differentiation caused by anthropogenic and natural factors in the Tahtali and Balçova reservoirs in western Turkey was investigated using discriminant analysis-DA, Mann Whitney U techniques. Effectiveness of pollution prevention measures was analyzed by Mann Kendall and Sen’s Slope estimator methods. The water quality variables were divided into three groups as physical-inorganic, organic and inorganic pollution parameters for the study. Results showed that water quality between reservoirs was differentiated for “physical-inorganic” and “organic pollution” parameters. Degree of influence of water quality by urbanization was higher in the Tahtali reservoir and in general, no trend detection at pollution indicators explained by effective management practices at both sites.
In the study, environmetric methods were successfully performed a) to explore natural and anthropogenic controls on reservoir water quality, b) to investigate spatial and temporal differences in quality, and c) to determine quality variables discriminating three reservoirs in Izmir, Turkey. Results showed that overall water quality was mainly governed by “natural factors” in the whole region. A parameter that was the most important in contributing to water quality variation for one reservoir was not important for another. Between summer and winter periods, difference in arsenic concentrations were statistically significant in the Tahtalı, Ürkmez and iron concentrations were in the Balçova reservoirs. Observation of high/low levels in two seasons was explained by different processes as for instance, dilution from runoff at times of high flow seeped through soil and entered the river along with the rainwater run-off and adsorption. Three variables “boron, arsenic and sulphate” discriminated quality among Balçova & Tahtalı, Balçova & Ürkmez and two variables “zinc and arsenic” among the Tahtalı & Ürkmez reservoirs. The results illustrated the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques to fingerprint pollution sources and investigate temporal/spatial variations in water quality.
An application specific integrated design using Quadrature Linear Discriminant Analysis is proposed for automatic detection of normal and epilepsy seizure signals from EEG recordings in epilepsy patients. Five statistical parameters are extracted to form the feature vector for training of the classifier. The statistical parameters are Standardised Moment, Co-efficient of Variance, Range, Root Mean Square Value and Energy. The Intellectual Property Core performs the process of filtering, segmentation, extraction of statistical features and classification of epilepsy seizure and normal signals. The design is implemented in Zynq 7000 Zc706 SoC with average accuracy of 99%, Specificity of 100%, F1 score of 0.99, Sensitivity of 98% and Precision of 100 % with error rate of 0.0013/hr., which is approximately zero false detection.
Electrocatalytic gas sensors belong to the family of electrochemical solid state sensors. Their responses are acquired in the form of I-V plots as a result of application of cyclic voltammetry technique. In order to obtain information about the type of measured gas the multivariate data analysis and pattern classification techniques can be employed. However, there is a lack of information in literature about application of such techniques in case of standalone chemical sensors which are able to recognize more than one volatile compound. In this article we present the results of application of these techniques to the determination from a single electrocatalytic gas sensor of single concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Two types of classifiers were evaluated, i.e. linear Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and nonlinear Support Vector Machine (SVM). The efficiency of using PLS-DA and SVM methods are shown on both the raw voltammetric sensor responses and pre-processed responses using normalization and auto-scaling
Purpose: to demonstrate the possibility of finding features reliable for more precise distinguishing between normal and abnormal Pattern Electroretinogram (PERG) recordings, in Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) coefficients domain. To determine characteristic features of the PERG and Pattern Visual Evoked Potential (PVEP) waveforms important in the task of precise classification and assessment of these recordings. Material and methods: 60 normal PERG waveforms and 60 PVEPs as well as 47 PERGs and 27 PVEPs obtained in some retinal and optic nerve diseases were studied in the two age groups (<= 50 years, > 50 years). All these signals were recorded in accordance with the guidelines of ISCEV in the Laboratory of Electrophysiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway and Static Perimetry, at the Department and Clinic of Ophthalmology of the Pomeranian Medical University. Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) was used for the time-frequency analysis and modelling of the PERG signal. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression were performed in statistical analysis of the PERG and PVEP signals. Obtained mathematical models were optimized using Fisher F(n1; n2) test. For preliminary evaluation of the obtained classification methods and algorithms in clinical practice, 22 PERGs and 55 PVEPs were chosen with respect to especially difficult discrimination problems (borderline recordings). Results: comparison between the method using CWT and standard time-domain based analysis showed that determining the maxima and minima of the PERG waves was achieved with better accuracy. This improvement was especially evident in waveforms with unclear peaks as well as in noisy signals. Predictive, quantitative models for PERGs and PVEPs binary classification were obtained based on characteristic features of the waveform morphology. Simple calculations algorithms for clinical applications were elaborated. They proved effective in distinguishing between normal and abnormal recordings. Conclusions: CWT based method is efficient in more precise assessment of the latencies of the PERG waveforms, improving separation between normal and abnormal waveforms. Filtering of the PERG signal may be optimized based on the results of the CWT analysis. Classification of the PERG and PVEP waveforms based on statistical methods is useful in preliminary interpretation of the recordings as well as in supporting more accurate assessment of clinical data.