An attempt at assessing the correlation between the content of fluoride in the Antarctic krill from various fishery and its.biological condition was carried out Fluoride was determined with the Dolan method, which was modified by the present authors. No statistically significant correlation was found between the degree of sexual maturity and fluoride content. There was no decisive statistical relation between the body weight and body length of individuals and the content of fluoride in the Antarctic krill.
Contents of PCBs was investigated using the gas chromatography method in the tissue of four Antarctic migratory birds: Oceanites oceanicus, Larus dominicanus, Catharacta skua and Sterna vittata, and the three penguin species: Pvgoscelis adeliae, P. papua and P. antarctica. Samples were collected at King George Island in February 1978 and, for comparison, in March 1983. The highest PCBs content was recorded in the adipose tissue of O. oceanicus and C. skua (15.7 and 1.2 ppm). Differences in the content of these compounds in the tissue of various penguin species in 1978 was observed. The mean cumulation level of PCBs in the adipose tissue of penguins was higher in 1983 than in 1978. Differences in the level of PCBs contents in the tissue of migratory birds were related to their winter migrations to areas polluted to various degress with PCBs remains. A tendency to the increase of the contamination of penguin tissues with PCBs was observed. This tendency was related to the increase of vhe pollution of the Antarctic environment with these compounds.
The aim of this study was to assess sand accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract and fecal sand excretion in Silesian foals using three diagnostic methods and taking into account the sex and age of the animals. Another aim of the study was to compare the three diagnostic methods. The study was carried out on 21 clinically healthy Silesian foals (10 females and 11 males) from 9-28 weeks old grazed on permanent pasture. The sand intake was assessed using a sedimentation test, abdominal ultrasonography and a quantitative evaluation of sand per 100 g of stool. In the sedimentation test, the sand was palpable in the stool of 57.1% of the horses, and clearly visible in 42.9% of the animals. The ultrasound examination revealed the presence of sand in the gastrointestinal tract in 66.7% of the horses. It was limited to a single location in 60% of the horses, while it was present in several regions in 40% of the horses. The mean amount of sand was 0.14 ± 0.33 g per 100 g of stool. It did not exceed 0.1g in 71.4% foals, while it ranged from 0.1-0.5 g in 23.8% foals. In 4.8% of the animals, it amounted to 1.6 g per 100 g of stool. There was no correlation between age and gender and the results. There was a positive correlation between the ultrasound examination and the sedimentation test. Sand may be accumulated in the gastrointestinal tract of foals without any clinical signs. The amount of sand excreted in the stool is not an indicator of the amount of sand accumulated in the gastrointestinal tract. An abdominal ultrasound examination should be combined with a sedimentation test for more specific results.
In this research reactive powder concrete (RPC) was prepared using sand from North Sinai. The mechanical properties of locally cast RPC were investigated and evaluated by studying the effects of using different cement and silica fume contents and new steel fi bers’ aspect ratios as reinforce-ment for RPC. Specimens’ preparation, curing regimes and testing procedures to evaluate the com-pressive strength, the modulus of elasticity, the indirect tensile strength and the fl exural strength were discussed. A compressive strength of 154.5 MPa, indirect tensile strength of 11.98 MPa, mod-ulus of elasticity of 45.1 GPa and fl exural strength of 30.26 MPa have been achieved for reinforced RPC contains 800 kg/m³ cement content and silica fume content 30% of cement weight. The test results showed some improvements by increasing cement and silica fume contentsas well as adding steel fi bers on the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and indirect tensile strength.
The new investigation method of the kinetics of the gas emission from moulding sands used for moulds and cores is presented in this paper. The gas evolution rate is presented not only as a function of heating time but also as a function of instantaneous temperatures. In relation to the time and heating temperature the oxygen and hydrogen contents in evolving gases was also measured. This method was developed in the Laboratory of Foundry Moulds Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH. Gas amounts which are emitted from the moulding sand at the given temperature recalculated to the time unit (kinetics) are obtained in investigations. Results of investigations of moulding sand with furan resin are presented - as an example - in the paper.
When the machine is at high speed, serious problems occur, such as high frequency loss, difficult thermal management, and the rotor structural strength insufficiency. In this paper, the performances of two high-speed permanent magnet generators (HSP- MGs) with different rotational speeds and the same torque are compared and analyzed. The two-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the 117 kW, 60 000 rpm HSPMG is established. By comparing a calculation result and test data, the accuracy of the model is verified. On this basis, the 40 kW, 20 000 rpm HSPMG is designed and the FEM is established. The relationship between the voltage regulation sensitivity and power factor of the two HSPMGs is determined. The influence mechanism of the voltage regulation sensitivity is further revealed. In addition, the air-gap flux density is decomposed by the Fourier transform principle, and the influence degree of different harmonic orders on the HSPMG performance is determined. The method to reduce the harmonic content is further proposed. Finally, the method to improve the HSPMG overload capacity is obtained by studying the maximum power. The research showed that the HSPMG at low speed (20 000 rpm) has high sensitivity of the voltage regulation, while the HSPMG at high speed (60 000 rpm) is superior to the HSPMG at low speed in reducing the harmonic content and increasing the overload capacity.
The aim of the study is to determine the mercury content in hard coal, randomly taken from the USCB and in by-products of hard coal mining (fresh mining waste), i.e. aggregates (gangue) and hard coal sludge and mining waste from the Siersza dump (weathered waste). The 34 samples were intended for analysis. The total mercury content and the amount of mercury leaching from solid samples was determined. The percentage of the leaching form in the total element content, i.e. the level of mercury release from the material (leaching level), was also calculated. The amount of mercury leaching was determined by a static method using a batch test 1:10. The highest possibility of leaching mercury is characterized by weathered waste from the Siersza dump and slightly lower analyzed hard coal from the U pper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB). For hard coal samples, the total mercury content is between 0.0275–0.1236 mg/kg. However, the amount of mercury leaching from coal samples is 0.0008–0.0077 mg/kg. The aggregate is characterized by a higher total mercury content in the finest fraction 0–6 mm, within 0.1377–0.6107 mg/kg and much lower in the 80-120 mm fraction, within 0.0508–0.1274 mg/kg. The amount of elution is comparable in both fractions and amounts to 0.0008–0.0057 mg/kg. Coal sludge has a total mercury content of 0.0937–0.2047 mg/kg. L ow leaching values of 0.0014–0.0074 mg/ kg are also observed. Weathered mining waste has a total mercury content of 0.0622–0.2987 mg/kg. However, leaching values from weathered waste are much higher than from fresh mining waste. This value is 0.0058–0.0165 mg/kg. In the hard coal extracted from U SCB, the leaching level is 4.7% on average. Mining waste is characterized by a large variation in the proportion of mercury leaching form and the differences result from the seasoning time of the samples. Waste or by-products of hard coal production, such as aggregates and coal sludge, show a mercury washout form at an average level of 1.7%. The proportion of leachable form in weathered waste increased strongly to 7.3%. Elution characteristics vary for different groups of materials tested. Factors such as the type and origin of samples, their granulometric composition and the seasoning time of the material are of fundamental importance and demonstrated in the work.
In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the quality of produced coal size categories for energy purposes. This is important from the perspective of promoting clean coal technologies which aim at changing the perception of coal as a fuel friendly for the environment. This is specifically because hard coal resources in Poland allow the national energy security to be guaranteed on the basis of energy production based on hard coal. Fine coals upgraded at coal processing facilities in the separation process in fine coal jigs are mainly used in energy production from coal. In the article, an analysis of hard coal upgrading in a jig regarding the optimum recovery of a useful fraction in the concentrate (combustible and volatile matter) and non-useful fraction in tailings (ash and sulfur) was conducted. Based on the industrial testing of a fine coal jig, the granulometric and densimetric analysis of the taken samples of concentrate, middlings and tailings of coal was conducted in laboratory conditions. Yields of products were calculated in separated size-fractions of separation products, and ash content and total sulfur content were determined in them. Based on the results of granulometric, densimetric and chemical analyses of the obtained size-fractions, the balance of separation products and appropriate calculations, Fuerstenau upgrading curves which allowed the process to be evaluated and a comparison of the results of hard coal upgrading regarding the optimum recovery of the organic phase in the concentrate and mineral components in tailings to be drawn. The obtained results were evaluated on the basis of different criteria for changing the device’s hydrodynamic operational conditions. The ash content and total sulfur content were analyzed as non-useful substances.
Irrigation of cultivated plants can be a source of toxic lithium to plants. The data on the effect of lithium uptake on plants are scant, that is why a research was undertaken with the aim to determine maize ability to bioaccumulate lithium. The research was carried out under hydroponic conditions. The experimental design comprised 10 concentrations in solution differing with lithium concentrations in the aqueous solution (ranging from 0.0 to 256.0 mg Li ∙ dm-3 of the nutrient solution). The parameters based on which lithium bioretention by maize was determined were: the yield, lithium concentration in various plant parts, uptake and utilization of this element, tolerance index (TI) and translocation factor (TF), metal concentrations in the above-ground parts index (CI) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF). Depression in yielding of maize occurred only at the highest concentrations of lithium. Lithium concentration was the highest in the roots, lower in the stems and leaves, and the lowest in the inflorescences. The values of tolerance index and EC50 indicated that roots were the most resistant organs to lithium toxicity. The values of translocation factor were indicative of intensive export of lithium from the roots mostly to the stems. The higher uptake of lithium by the above-ground parts than by the roots, which primarily results from the higher yield of these parts of the plants, supports the idea of using maize for lithium phytoremediation.
The paper deals with the problem of multiple remelting influence on AlSi6Cu4 alloy modified by antimony on chosen mechanical characteristics, microstructure and gas content. This foundry alloy is used mostly in automotive industry. Foundry Aluminum-Silicon alloys are also used in number of industrial weight sensitive applications because of their low weight and very good castability and good mechanical properties. Modifiers are usually added to molten aluminum-silicon alloys to refine the eutectic phase particle shape and improve the mechanical properties of the final cast products and Al-Si alloys cast properties.
This article examines the occasional verse published by the daily Czas [Time] in 1864–1879, i.e. over a decade and a half after the suppression of the January Rising. These texts, which feature both solemn occasions and local ephemera, present us with a unique chronicle of life of Cracow and its environs. In addition to listing all the relevant texts, the article attempts to identify their authors, i.e. unlock their initials or pseudonyms, to outline the conventions and genological peculiarities of that verse, and to gauge the attitudes of the Cracovians towards the question of Poland’s independence, Romanticism, patriotism as well as some well-known authority figures.
Postharvest processing of grain is an important step in the overall grain production process. It makes possible not only quantitative and qualitative preservation of the harvest, but also ensures maximum profit from its sale at the most favorable market conditions. Convective heat treatment (drying, cooling) guarantees commercial harvest conservation, prevents its loss, and in some cases improves the quality of the finished product. The necessity of intensification and automation of technological processes of postharvest grain processing requires the development of methods of mathematical modeling of energy-intensive processes of convective heat treatment. The determination and substantiation of optimum modes and parameters of equipment operation to ensure the preservation of grain quality is possible only when applying mathematical modeling techniques. In this work, a mathematical model of particulate material drying is presented through a system of differential equations in partial derivatives of which the variable in time and space relationship between heat and mass transfer processes in the material and a drying agent is reflected. The aim of the research was to determine the dynamics of the interrelated fields of unsteady temperature and moisture content of the material and the drying agent on the basis of mathematical models of heat and mass transfer in the layer of particulate material in convective heat approach or heat retraction. The implementation of the mathematical model proposed in the standard mathematical set allows analyzing efficiency of machines and equipment for the convective heat treatment of particulate agricultural materials in a dense layer, according the determinant technological parameters and operating modes.
We measured the total chlorophyll (Chl a+b) content in seedling leaves of fifteen maize cultivars infested by two studied aphid species (oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L., monophagous Sitobion avenae F.) 7 and 14 days after the beginning of infestation, using a SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter. Chlorophyll loss was more severe in R. padi-infested than in S. avenae-infested plants. Chlorophyll depletion was greater after long-term (14 days) than after short-term aphid infestation in the investigated host systems. Seedlings of Złota Karłowa and Tasty Sweet were more damaged by aphid feeding; Ambrozja and Płomyk plants were less damaged by aphid feeding.
At present, the speed of production and its complexity increases with each passing year due to the shorter product life cycle and competition in the global market. This trend is also observed in the machine-building industry, therefore, in order to ensure the competitiveness of enterprises and reduce the cost of production, it is necessary to intensify production. This is especially true in the machining of complex parts that require a great number of setups, and technological equipment. The problem-oriented analysis of complex parts was carried out, the parts classification was structured and developed according to the design and technological features. This made it possible to offer advanced manufacturing processes for complex parts like levers, forks, and connecting rods. The flexible fixtures for specified complex parts were developed. The effectiveness of the proposed manufacturing processes,
This article presents changes in the operating parameters of a combined gas-steam cycle with a CO2 capture installation and flue gas recirculation. Parametric equations are solved in a purpose-built mathematical model of the system using the Ebsilon Professional code. Recirculated flue gases from the heat recovery boiler outlet, after being cooled and dried, are fed together with primary air into the mixer and then into the gas turbine compressor. This leads to an increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the flue gases fed into the CO2 capture installation from 7.12 to 15.7%. As a consequence, there is a reduction in the demand for heat in the form of steam extracted from the turbine for the amine solution regeneration in the CO2 capture reactor. In addition, the flue gas recirculation involves a rise in the flue gas temperature (by 18 K) at the heat recovery boiler inlet and makes it possible to produce more steam. These changes contribute to an increase in net electricity generation efficiency by 1%. The proposed model and the obtained results of numerical simulations are useful in the analysis of combined gas-steam cycles integrated with carbon dioxide separation from flue gases.
The ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is widely used for solar modules encapsulation. During lamination process EVA melts and chemical bonds between polymer chains are created. Its number is tightly related to cross-linking degree and it is consider as a major quality reference for module encapsulation. The lamination can be described as a process with two stages: melting and curing where the typical temperature for curing is in the range from 145 to 175°C. In the present study, for the first time, comparison of three commercial available EVA foils with low curing temperature EVA (EVA LOW). For this reason, the temperature of following lamination processes was set from a range from 115 to 175°C. The behavior of cured EVA films under investigation EVA was determined with two approaches: with extraction and with optical methods. The results indicate the applicability of these methods for the EVA cross-linking characterization. Finally, the extraordinary behavior of EVA LOW foil was noticed.
Isothermal hot compression experiments were carried out using the Gleeble-1500D thermal mechanical simulator. The flow stress of the Cu-1%Zr and Cu-1%Zr-0.15%Y alloys was studied at hot deformation temperature of 550°C, 650°C, 750°C, 850°C, 900°C and the strain rate of 0.001 s–1, 0.01 s–1, 0.1 s–1, 1 s–1, 10 s–1. Hot deformation activation energy and constitutive equations for two kinds of alloys with and without yttrium addition were obtained by correlating the flow stress, strain rate and deformation temperature. The reasons for the change of hot deformation activation energy of the two alloys were analyzed. Dynamic recrystallization microstructure evolution for the two kinds of alloys during hot compression deformation was analyzed by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Cu-1%Zr and Cu-1%Zr-0.15%Y alloys exhibit similar behavior of hot compression deformation. Typical dynamic recovery occurs during the 550-750°C deformation temperature, while dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurs during the 850-900°C deformation temperature. High Zr content and the addition of Y significantly improved Cu-1%Zr alloy hot deformation activation energy. Compared with hot deformation activation energy of pure copper, hot deformation activation energy of the Cu-1%Zr and Cu-1%Zr-0.15%Y alloys is increased by 54% and 81%, respectively. Compared with hot deformation activation energy of the Cu-1%Zr alloy, it increased by 18% with the addition of Y. The addition of yttrium refines grain, advances the dynamic recrystallization critical strain point and improves dynamic recrystallization.
The results presented in this paper are a continuation of the previously published studies. The results of hest treatment of ductile iron with content 3,66%Si and 3,80% Si were produced. The experimental castings were subjected to austempering process for time 30, 60 and 90 minutes at temperature 300o C. The mechanical properties of heat treated specimens were studied using tensile testing and hardness measurement, while microstructures were evaluated with conventional metallographic observations. It was again stated that austempering of high silicone ferritic matrix ductile iron allowed producing ADI-type cast iron with mechanical properties comparable with standard ADI.
Ductile iron casts with a higher silicone content were produced. The austempering process of high silicone ductile iron involving different austempering times was studied and the results presented. The results of metallographical observations and tensile strength tests were offered. The obtained results point to the fact that the silicone content which is considered as acceptable in the literature may in fact be exceeded. The issue is viewed as requiring further research.
Similarity assessment between 3D models is an important problem in many fields including medicine, biology and industry. As there is no direct method to compare 3D geometries, different model representations (shape signatures) are developed to enable shape description, indexing and clustering. Even though some of those descriptors proved to achieve high classification precision, their application is often limited. In this work, a different approach to similarity assessment of 3D CAD models was presented. Instead of focusing on one specific shape signature, 45 easy-to-extract shape signatures were considered simultaneously. The vector of those features constituted an input for 3 machine learning algorithms: the random forest classifier, the support vector classifier and the fully connected neural network. The usefulness of the proposed approach was evaluated with a dataset consisting of over 1600 CAD models belonging to 9 separate classes. Different values of hyperparameters, as well as neural network configurations, were considered. Retrieval accuracy exceeding 99% was achieved on the test dataset.