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Abstrakt

The article analyzes the risk factors related to the energy use of alternative fuels from waste. The essence of risk and its impact on economic activity in the area of waste management were discussed. Then, a risk assessment, on the example of waste fractions used for the production of alternative fuel, was carried out. In addition, the benefits for the society and the environment from the processing of alternative fuels for energy purposes, including, among others: reducing the cost of waste disposal, limiting the negative impact on water, soil and air, reducing the amount of waste deposited, acquisition of land; reduction of the greenhouse effect, facilitating the recycling of other fractions, recovery of electricity and heat, and saving conventional energy carriers, were determined. The analysis of risk factors is carried out separately for plants processing waste for alternative fuel production and plants producing energy from this type of fuel. Waste processing plants should pay attention to investment, market (price, interest rate, and currency), business climate, political, and legal risks, as well as weather, seasonal, logistic, technological, and loss of profitability or bankruptcy risks. Similar risks are observed in the case of energy companies, as they operate in the same external environment. Moreover, internal risks may be similar; however, the specific nature of the operation of each enterprise should be taken into account. Energy companies should pay particular attention to the various types of costs that may threaten the stability of operation, especially in the case of regulated energy prices. The risk associated with the inadequate quality of the supplied and stored fuels is important. This risk may disrupt the technological process and reduce the plant’s operational efficiency. Heating plants and combined heat and power plants should also not underestimate the non-catastrophic weather risk, which may lead to a decrease in heat demand and a reduction in business revenues. A comprehensive approach to risk should protect enterprises against possible losses due to various types of threats, including both external and internal threats.
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Abstrakt

W artykule przedstawiono analizę kierunków zrównoważonego rozwoju źródeł wytwórczych energii elektrycznej w Krajowym Systemie Elektroenergetycznym (KSE). Sformułowano kryteria zrównoważonego rozwoju systemu elektroenergetycznego. Opracowano bilans mocy jednostek wytwórczych centralnie dysponowanych (JWCD), wymagany dla bezpiecznej pracy KSE do 2035 roku. Zdefiniowano 19 perspektywicznych technologii wytwarzania energii elektrycznej, podzielonych na trzy następujące grupy: elektrownie systemowe, elektrociepłownie dużej i średniej mocy oraz elektrownie i elektrociepłownie małej mocy (źródła rozproszone). Wyznaczono wielkości charakteryzujące efektywność energetyczną wybranych do analizy technologii wytwórczych oraz ich emisyjność CO2. Dla poszczególnych technologii wyznaczono również jednostkowe, zdyskontowane na 2018 rok, koszty wytwarzania energii elektrycznej, z uwzględnieniem kosztów uprawnień do emisji CO2. Opracowano mapę drogową zrównoważonego rozwoju źródeł wytwórczych w KSE w latach 2020–2035. Wyniki obliczeń i analiz przedstawiono w tabelach i na rysunku.
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Abstrakt

The paper presents a modified algorithm for choosing the optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems taking into account additional benefits concerning the promotion of highefficiency cogeneration and biomass cofiring. The optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration depends first of all on the share of the heat required for preparing the hot tap water. The final result of investigations is an empirical equation describing the influence of the ratio of the heat flux for the production of hot tap water to the maximum flux for space heating and ventilation, as well as the share of chemical energy of biomass in the fuel mixture on the optimal value of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems. The approach presented in the paper may be applied both in back-pressure combined heat and power (CHP) plants and in extraction-condensing CHP plants.
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Abstrakt

Cyanobacterial and algal blooms lead to the deterioration of freshwater ecosystems but also generate technical problems in water management in the industry. Power plants often use freshwater lakes and reservoirs as a source of cooling water and in the case of cogeneration stations (combined heat and power) also as a source of agents for heating energy distribution. A preliminary research in one of the heat and power stations in eastern Poland which uses water from suffering with algal blooms reservoir was carried out in April 2011. The study was focused on the changes in the phytoplankton quantitative and qualitative structure as well as in basic physico- -chemical parameters along the water treatment line, which consists of several stages serving as sampling points (from the pump station to the purified water tank). The initial phytoplankton biomass in the reservoir was high (fresh biomass: 65.8 mg dm-3, chlorophyll a: 146.7 μg dm-3) with diatoms prevailing (98% of the total biomass) from which the most numerous were: Cyclotella comta and Aulacoseira granulata. After several stages of the purification process (sedimentation, biocide addition, flocculation, gravel filtering, ion exchange) the water still consisted a considerable amount of algae (fresh biomass: 2.48 mg dm-3, chlorophyll a: 6.0 μg dm-3). However, the final biomass in purified water tank (after reversed osmosis process) was very low (fresh biomass: 0.03 mg dm-3, chlorophyll a: 0.1 μg dm-3). Results had shown that high algal biomass in the water used in power generation plant is difficult to remove and consequently requires considerable technical (thus also economical) efforts to adjust the water for the industrial use.
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Abstrakt

The paper presents the results of optimizing the coefficient of the share of cogeneration expressed by an empirical formula dedicated to designers, which will allow to determine the optimal value of the share of cogeneration in contemporary cogeneration systems with the thermal storages feeding the district heating systems. This formula bases on the algorithm of the choice of the optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems with the thermal storage, taking into account additional benefits concerning the promotion of high-efficiency cogeneration and the decrease of the cost of CO2 emission thanks to cogeneration. The approach presented in this paper may be applicable both in combined heat and power (CHP) plants with back-pressure turbines and extraction-condensing turbines.
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