The paper is devoted to explication of one of the advantages of heat and electricity cogeneration, rarely considered in technical literature. Usually attention is paid to the fact that heat losses of the heat distribution network are less severe in the case of cogeneration of heat in comparison with its separate production. But this conclusion is also true in other cases when the internal consumption of heat is significant. In this paper it has been proved in the case of two examples concerning trigeneration technology with an absorption chiller cooperating with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant and CHP plant integrated with amine post-combustion CO2processing unit. In both considered cases it might be said that thanks to cogeneration we have to do with less severe consequences of significant demand of heat for internal purposes.
The paper presents the results of optimizing the coefficient of the share of cogeneration expressed by an empirical formula dedicated to designers, which will allow to determine the optimal value of the share of cogeneration in contemporary cogeneration systems with the thermal storages feeding the district heating systems. This formula bases on the algorithm of the choice of the optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems with the thermal storage, taking into account additional benefits concerning the promotion of high-efficiency cogeneration and the decrease of the cost of CO2 emission thanks to cogeneration. The approach presented in this paper may be applicable both in combined heat and power (CHP) plants with back-pressure turbines and extraction-condensing turbines.
Thermal analysis of a heat and power plant with a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is presented. The main aim of the considered system is to supply a technological process with the heat at suitably high temperature level. The considered unit is also used to produce electricity. The high temperature helium cooled nuclear reactor is the primary heat source in the system, which consists of: the reactor cooling cycle, the steam cycle and the gas heat pump cycle. Helium used as a carrier in the first cycle (classic Brayton cycle), which includes the reactor, delivers heat in a steam generator to produce superheated steam with required parameters of the intermediate cycle. The intermediate cycle is provided to transport energy from the reactor installation to the process installation requiring a high temperature heat. The distance between reactor and the process installation is assumed short and negligable, or alternatively equal to 1 km in the analysis. The system is also equipped with a high temperature argon heat pump to obtain the temperature level of a heat carrier required by a high temperature process. Thus, the steam of the intermediate cycle supplies a lower heat exchanger of the heat pump, a process heat exchanger at the medium temperature level and a classical steam turbine system (Rankine cycle). The main purpose of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the system considered and to assess whether such a three cycle cogeneration system is reasonable. Multivariant calculations have been carried out employing the developed mathematical model. The results have been presented in a form of the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system as a function of the temperature drop in the high temperature process heat exchanger and the reactor pressure.
The changes in the domestic solid fuel market (including forecasted increases in the fuel prices) and the growing requirements related to actual environmental standards, result in increased interest in renewable energy sources, such as biomass, wind and solar energy. These sources will allow to achieve reduction in the CO2 emission, and consequently – avoid environmental costs after 2020. Therefore, the development of distributed energy systems, based on the use of biomass boilers, gas boilers and high efficiency combined heat and power units, will enable the fulfillment of current standards in the field of energy efficiency and emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. It should be emphasized that the actions taken to reduce emissions (e.g. anti-smog act) will contribute to reducing coal consumption in the municipal and housing sector (households, agriculture and other customers) in favor of biomass and other renewable energy sources. The article reviews selected biomass technologies: - fluidized, dust and grate boilers, - straw-fired boilers, - cogeneration systems powered by biomass, - torrefaction and biomass carbonisation. The mentioned technologies are characterized by a high potential of in the field of dynamic development and practical application in the coming years. Thus, they can improve difficult situation in the distributed energy sector with a capacity up to 50 MW.
The implementation of micro scale combined heat and power systems is one of the ways to improve the energy security of consumers. In fact, there are many available large and medium scale cogeneration units, which operate according to the Rankine Cycle. Due to European Union demands in the field of using renewable energy sources and increasing energy efficiency result in the importance of additionally developing systems dedicated for use in residential buildings, farms, schools and other facilities. This paper shows the concept of introducing thermoelectric generators into typical wood stoves: steel plate wood stoves and accumulative wood stoves. Electricity generated in thermoelectric generators (there were studies on both three market available units and a prototypical unit developed by the authors) may be firstly consumed by the system (to power controller, actuators, fans, pumps, etc.). Additional power (if available) may be stored in batteries and then used to power home appliances (light, small electronics and others). It should be noted that commercially available thermoelectric generators are not matched for domestic heating devices – the main problems are connected with an insufficient heat flux transmitted from the stove to the hot side of the generator (caused e.g. by the non -homogeneous temperature distribution of the surface and bad contact between the stove and the generator) and inefficient cooling. To ensure the high efficiency of micro cogeneration systems, developing a dedicated construction both of the generator and the heat source is necessary.
In this article, a comparison of economic effectiveness of various heating systems dedicated to residential applications is presented: a natural gas-fueled micro-cogeneration (micro-combined heat and power – μCHP) unit based on a free-piston Stirling engine that generates additional electric energy; and three so-called classical heating systems based on: gas boiler, coal boiler, and a heat pump. Calculation includes covering the demand for electricity, which is purchased from the grid or produced in residential system. The presented analyses are partially based on an experimental investigation. The measurements of the heat pump system as well as those of the energy (electricity and heat) demand profiles in the analyzed building were conducted for a single-family house. The measurements of the μCHP unit were made using a laboratory stand prepared for simulating a variable heat demand. The overall efficiency of the μCHP was in the range of 88.6– 92.4%. The amounts of the produced/consumed energy (electricity, heat, and chemical energy of fuel) were determined. The consumption and the generation of electricity were settled on a daily basis. Operational costs of the heat pump system or coal boiler based heating system are lower comparing to the micro-cogeneration, however no support system for natural gas-based μCHP system is included.