The rocks quarried in the neighboring Rutki and Ligota Tułowicka deposits (vicinity of Niemodlin) represent a single petrographic variety of basalt, i.e. nephelinite. The presence of nepheline (the mineral belonging to the group of feldspathoids) that forms the light-colored component of the groundmass is the characteristic feature of these rocks. Nepheline is accompanied by fine crystals of pyroxene and, occasionally, magnetite. Distinctly larger pyroxene and olivine phenocrysts are dispersed within the groundmass. Neither minerals of the groundmass nor the phenocrysts of the pyroxenes reveal any signs of chemical weathering. However, such alterations are clearly visible in the phenocrysts of olivine. The basalt raw materials of both deposits are utilized mainly for the production of various assortments of crushed road aggregates and as components of concretes. These applications require the aggregates with the grain sizes >2 mm. There is also a possibility to utilize coarse-grained basalt aggregates for the manufacturing of rock wool. This is due to a favorable property of the rocks from Rutki and Ligota Tułowicka that is their relatively low content of magnetite resulting in the low capability of the molten basalt to crystallize. The chemical weathering of the olivine phenocrysts have proceeded toward the formation of clay minerals, among which those of the smectite group prevail. Their elevated quantities occur in the finest aggregate assortment, i.e. 0–0.85 mm. The fineness of this grain fraction and its elevated quantity of clay minerals are two favorable features to utilize this part of the basalt aggregate by the heavy clay industry as an additive improving the physico-mechanical parameters and providing the required red color of ceramic products..
This paper presents matters related to production of ceramic and cast iron composite. The composite was made with the use of a foam structured ceramic insert. The tests included measuring of hardness, impact strength and resistance to abrasive wear of the composite produced. On the basis of obtaining results was stated that the use of foamed ceramic filters provides good conditions of filling a ceramic framework with molten grey or chromium cast iron. The growth of hardness of the ceramic- grey cast iron composite is ca. 60% as compared to the grey cast iron hardness. The growth of hardness of the ceramic- chromium cast iron composite is slight and does not exceed 5 % in comparison to the chromium cast iron. Introduction of the ceramic inserts deteriorates the cast iron impact strength by ca. 20 - 30 %. The use of ceramic inserts increases the resistance to abrasive wear in case of grey cast iron by ca. 13% and in case of the chromium cast iron by ca. 10 %.
The amount of waste from washing dolomite aggregates increases continuously. Aggregates are washed to remove clayey pollutants.They consist of a large amount of clay minerals and carbonates. Their properties and amount depends on the type of raw material and type of washing technology. Utilization of waste from washing aggregates is common problem and has not been sought out yet. Their usage as the raw material in ceramics might be environmentally friendly way to utilize them. This paper presents technological properties, phase composition and microstructure analysis of materials made of waste sludge from washing dolomite aggregates. Research was divided into three parts: technological properties analysis, phase composition analysis and microstructure analysis. Samples made of waste dolomite sludge were formed in laboratory clay brick vacuum extruder and fired at 900, 1000 and 1100°C. For final materials, apparent density, open porosity, water absorption, compressive strength and durability were examined. Results of technological research suggest the possibility of the application of the waste sludge from washing aggregates in building ceramics technology as bricks materials. Waste sludge from washing dolomite aggregates can be used as the main raw material of building ceramics masses. Without any additional technological operations (e.g. drying or grinding), the material with satisfactory properties was obtained. According to durability results all obtained materials can be used for masonry protected against water penetration and without contact with soil and ground water and also for masonry subjected to passive exposure (F0 – according to the standard EN 771-1).
In the work five ceramic compounds based on the (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)NbO3 (KNLN) material modified with oxides: Cr2O3, ZnO, Sb2O3 or Fe2O3 (in an amount of 0.5 mol.%) were obtained. The KNLN-type composition powder was prepared by solid phase synthesis from a mixture of simple oxides and carbonates, while compacted of the ceramic samples was conducted by free sintering methods. In the work the effect of the used admixture on the electrophysical properties of the KNLN ceramics was presented. The XRD, EDS tests, the SEM measurements of the morphology ceramic samples, dielectric properties and DC electric conductivity were conducted. The research showed that the used admixtures introduced into the base of KNLN-type composition improve the microstructure of the ceramic samples and improve their sinterability. In the case of the dielectric measurements, it was observed a decrease in the maximum dielectric permittivity at the TC for dopred KNLN-type samples. The addition of an admixture of chromium, zinc, antimony or iron in an amount of 0.5 mol.% to the base composition (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)NbO3 practically does not change the phase transition temperature. The diminution in the density value of doped KNLN ceramics was attributed to the alkali elements volatilization.
The Jurassic kaolinite-illite clays in Rozwady (Opoczno region) were exploited for the needs of the chamotte fireclay refractories plant in Opoczno built in the years 1926–1928. Until the World War II, these clays were a major component of ceramic sets used for manufacturing quartz-chamotte refractories applicable to steel-making ladles in the Upper Silesian steel works. In the year 1990, due to a drastically low demand for chamotte refractories in Poland, both the plant in Opoczno and the Mroczków-Rozwady clay underground mine were shut down. However, recent years have brought about a renewed interest in exploiting the Opoczno clays for the domestic ceramic industry. Clay mining was initiated in 2014 in the new open pit in Borkowice and has also continued as of 2017 exploiting the Rozwady I deposit. In the clay raw material of Rozwady, kaolinite clearly predominates over illite, among the non-clay minerals quartz occurs in variable quantities, whereas the organic matter is a permanent but minor component. The quantity of the organic matter varies within the deposit and forms the basis to distinguish light and dark colored clays. Considering the petrographical reasons, the raw material of Rozwady represents rocks intermediate between claystones and mudstones. The Rozwady clays have been used by many plants producing tiles within the Opoczno region and it is predicted that their use will increase, as the prices of the clay raw materials imported from Ukraine is constantly growing and the cost of their transport is substantial.
The paper presents selected granular ceramic materials available on the Polish market. Their characteristics have been determined in the aspect on application in the production of iron alloy-ceramic composite. The possibility of obtaining a composite layer by means of bulk grains in molds of plates were considered, which was the foundation for experimental molds to be used in service tests. On the basis of obtaining results was stated that the knowledge of the characteristics of bulk grains enables the calculation of their quantity necessary for the composite production. When using the bulk grains the thickness of the composite layer is restricted by the thermal relations (cooler) and the physical phenomena (buoyancy, metal static pressure). Increasing amount of grains above definite condition causes surface defects in the castings. Each casting, due to its weight, shape and place of composite layer production requires an individual approach, both at the stage of formation and that of calculation of the required quantity of ceramic grains.
Washing is very popular technological operation removing clay particles from aggregates. The amount of mineral washing sludges increases. Besides filling the excavations, there is no common method of their utilization. The usage of sludges from washing aggregates in building ceramics might be environmentally friendly way to utilize them. This paper presents laboratory research on two type of sludges: from dolomite and limestone aggregates washing. Selected properties of sludges such as water content, particle size distribution (sieve and areometric method), chemical composition (XRF), mineral composition (XRD), thermal properties (STA/EGA, dilatometry, heating microscopy) and stability of fired materials during steam exposure were determined. It was found that dolomite sludge contains more clay minerals and less carbonates, it is more finely grained than limestone sludge. Limestone sludge has large fluctuations in water content and has high content of potentially hazardous calcite grains. During heating up to 1300°C of both dried sludges decarbonation and sintering take place. Dolomite sludge softens, melts and flows below 1300°C. After firing sludges at 1000°C material made of limestone sludge is not resistant to steam. The obtained result suggests that dolomite sludge can be used in building ceramics technology without processing as main component of ceramic mass. Limestone sludge have to be ground before its application in building ceramic materials. Results suggest that it can not be used as the main raw material in ceramic masses, but only as an additive.
The results of testing the strength properties of experimental ceramic materials containing spending moulding sand after initial mechanical reclamation as a material for subsequent layers of the stucco composition were presented. Tests were carried out on spent moulding sands from various foundry technologies, i.e. sand with furfuryl resin and sand with hydrated sodium silicate. The spent, agglomerated moulding sand has undergone a crushing process. Next, the required granular fractions used for individual layers of the stucco material were separated. Ceramic samples, in which the spent moulding sand was a substitute for fresh silica sand in successive layers of the stucco composition, were prepared. As a reference material, identical ceramic samples were used but with all layers made from the fresh silica sand. Samples prepared in this way were used to determine the bending strength of ceramic materials in the temperature range from 20 to 900ºC. The obtained values of the bending strength have demonstrated that spent moulding sand can be used in investment casting with no adverse effect on the strength of ceramic materials.
The paper presents the test results for the microstructure of ZnO varistors comprising high voltage gapless surge arresters. The tests were performed on varistors produced in different periods and by various manufacturers. The research was inspired by different characteristics of changes in values of current flowing through surge arresters as a function of changes in values of system voltage in a 220 kV substation, and the temperature in a multi-year cycle. Furthermore, the effects of varistor microstructure degradation following a failure of an unsealed surge arrester were investigated. The results provided the grounds for assessment of ZnO varistor microstructure parameters in terms of their durability and resistance to degradation processes.
A short literature survey which justifies coating of ceramic cutting inserts is presented. The results reported are on selected nitride coatings, in particular nanoscale multilayer, with layers of type Ti-Zr-N, TiN, ZrN and (TiAl)N, deposited by the arc PVD method on oxidecarbide ceramic cutting inserts of type TACN and TW2 produced at the Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. Measurements and quality assessments were made, including of thickness of the coatings and of their constituent micro and nanolayers, microhardness of the coating and of the substrate, surface roughness of the inserts and of the cylindrical workpieces turned with these tools. Lifetimes of the coated and uncoated inserts were compared in turning an alloy tool steel. A significant increase in lifetime of the coated TW2 cutting tools was shown.
Preliminary tests aimed at obtaining a cellular SiC/iron alloy composite with a spatial structure of mutually intersecting skeletons, using a porous ceramic preform have been conducted. The possibility of obtaining such a composite joint using a SiC material with an oxynitride bonding and grey cast iron with flake graphite has been confirmed. Porous ceramic preforms were made by pouring the gelling ceramic suspension over a foamed polymer base which was next fired. The obtained samples of materials were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic observations as well as investigations into the chemical composition in microareas. It was found that the minimum width of a channel in the preform, which in the case of pressureless infiltration enables molten cast iron penetration, ranges from 0.10 to 0.17 mm. It was also found that the ceramic material applied was characterized by good metal wettability. The ceramics/metal contact area always has a transition zone (when the channel width is big enough), where mixing of the components of both composite elements takes place.
Investigations on integration of optoelectronic components with LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramics) microfluidic module are presented. Design, fabrication and characterization of the ceramic structure for optical absorbance is described as well. The geometry of the microfluidic channels has been designed according to results of the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) analysis. A fabricated LTCC-based microfluidic module consists of an U-shaped microchannel, two optical fibers and integrated light source (light emitting diode) and photodetector (light-to-voltage converter). Properties of the fabricated microfluidic system have been investigated experimentally. Several concentrations of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in water were used for absorbance/transmittance measurements. The test has shown a linear detection range for various concentrations of heavy metal ions in distilled water. The fabricated microfluidic structure is found to be a very useful system in chemical analysis.
In the paper the modelling of thermo-mechanical effects in the process of friction welding of corundum ceramics and aluminium is presented. The modelling is performed by means of finite element method. The corundum ceramics contains 97% of Al2O3. The mechanical and temperature fields are considered as coupled fields. Simulation of loading of the elements bonded with the heat flux from friction heat on the contact surface is also shown. The heat flux was modified in the consecutive time increments of numerical solutions by changeable pressure on contact surface. Time depending temperature distribution in the bonded elements is also determined. The temperature distribution on the periphery of the cylindrical surfaces of the ceramics and Al was compared to the temperature measurements done with a thermovision camera. The results of the simulation were compared to those obtained from the tests performed by means of a friction welding machine
In this paper, explain the preparation of CaTiO3 ceramics synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. Calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide were high energy mixed in stoichiometric amounts, and the obtained mixture was calcined at different temperatures (800, 900, 1000 and 1300ºC) for 2 h. The obtained samples were characterized by measurement of particle size, Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Analysis; differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and SEM images. XRD patterns indicated that CaTiO3 ceramics with the structure of perovskite is obtained from calcined powders at 1,300°C for 2 h. SEM images show the formation of a very fine and homogeneous morphology. The measured values of electrical resistivity were within the typical range of insulating materials and approach values corresponding to insulating ceramics.
Al and Nb-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) and W-doped LLZO lithium ion conducting electrolyte samples were prepared and their H2O stability was investigated. The LLZO samples were exposed to 50% humidified air for 48 h. After H2O exposure, a cubic to tetragonal transformation occurred and acquired SEM images exhibited the presence of reaction phases at the grain boundaries of Al and Nb-LLZO. As a result, the lithium ion conductivity significantly decreased after H2O exposure. On the contrary, W-LLZO showed good stability against H2O. Although the cubic to tetragonal transformation was also observed in H2O-exposed W-LLZO, the decrease in lithium ion conductivity was found to be modest. No morphological changes of the W-LLZO samples were confirmed in the H2O-exposed W-LLZO samples.
The paper presents investigations of microstructure of varistors of damaged surge arrester counters. A similar ZnO varistor, not subjected before to operation, was a point of reference in this research. The results of investigations of the ZnO varistors show an untypical phase composition of their material, which was characterized by unsatisfying homogeneity and cohesion. The degradation processes of varistor material in the subsequent stages were recognized and described. A harmful impact of humidity inside the untight surge arrester counter on its operation and its ZnO varistors was proved. Some conclusions being the result of the operation checking of surge arrester counters were presented too.
The aim of this research was to fabricate and study the properties of Bi1-x DyxFeO3 (for x = 0, 0.05, 0.07, 0.1) ceramics materials. Simple oxide powders Bi2O3, Dy2O3 and Fe2O3 were used to fabricate Bi1-xDyxFeO3 ceramics by mixed oxide method followed by free sintering. The study presents changes in microstructure and crystal structure as well as in dielectric properties and magnetic properties caused by modification of BiFeO3 with dysprosium dopant.
Y2O3-MgO nanocomposites are one of the most promising materials for hypersonic infrared windows and domes due to their excellent optical transmittance and mechanical properties. In this study, influence of the calcination temperature of Y2O3-MgO nanopowders on the microstructure, IR transmittance, and hardness of Y2O3-MgO nanocomposites was investigated. It was found that the calcination temperature is related to the presence of residual intergranular pores and grain size after spark plasma sintering. The nanopowders calcined at 1000°C exhibits the highest infrared transmittance (82.3% at 5.3 μm) and hardness (9.99 GPa). These findings indicated that initial particle size and distribution of the nanopowders are important factors determining the optical and mechanical performances of Y2O3-MgO nanocomposites.
Lead-free ceramics of Na0.5K0.5Nb1-xSbxO3 (NKNS) and Na0.5K0.5Nb1-xSbxO3 + 0.5 mol%MnO2 (NKNS + 0.5 mol%MnO2) (0 < x < 0.06) ceramics were prepared by a conventional solid-state hot pressing method. The ceramics possess a single-phase perovskite structure with orthorhombic symmetry. Microstructural examination revealed that Mn doping of NKNS leads to improvement of densification. The cubic-tetragonal and tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transitions of NKNS shifted to higher and lower temperature, respectively after introduction of Mn ion. Besides, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were improved. The results were discussed in term of difference in both ionic size and electronegativity of Nb5+ and Sb5+ and improvement of densification after Mn ion doping.