This paper addresses the problem of road safety regarding barrier placement as relative to the curb. A short summary of existing regulations is presented. Numerical simulations using the explicit finite element system Ls-Dyna are shown. In the analysis, variable distance between the barrier and the curb is assumed. The obtained result reveals that the distance has little impact on the working width of the barrier.
This paper proposes four different cost-effective configurations of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) in an electric city bus. A comparison is presented between a battery powered bus (battery bus) and supercapacitor powered bus in two configurations in terms of initial and operational costs. The lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery type was used in the battery bus and three of the hybrids. In the first hybrid the battery module was the same size as in the battery bus, in the second it was half the size and in the third it was one third the size. The fourth hybrid used a lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) battery type with the same energy as the LFP battery module in the battery bus. The model of LFP battery degradation is used in the calculation of its lifetime range and operational costs. For the NMC battery and supercapacitor, the manufacturers’ data have been adopted. The results show that it is profitable to use HESS in an electric city bus from both the producer and consumer point of view. The reduction of battery size and added supercapacitor module generates up to a 36% reduction of the initial energy storage system (ESS) price and up to a 29% reduction of operational costs when compared to the battery ESS. By using an NMC battery type in HESS, it is possible to reduce operational costs by up to 50% compared to an LFP battery ESS.
Safety and operation efficiency of the particle accelerators strongly depend on the quality of the supplied electric current and is affected by the electric properties of all elements of the circuit. In this paper the capacitance of the superconducting bus-bars applied in the cryogenic by-pass line for the SIS100 particle accelerator at FAIR is analysed. The unit capacitance of the bus-bars is calculated numerically and found experimentally. A 2D numerical model of a cross-section of the cable is applied. The capacitance is found with three methods. The stored energy, electric displacement field and charge gathered on the surfaces of the device are calculated and analysed. The obtained values are consistent. Experimental measurements are performed using the resonance method. The measuring system is undamped using a negative conductance converter. Small discrepancies are ob- served between numerical and experimental results. The obtained values are within the requirements of the accelerator design.
The paper puts forward a method of designing and creating a complete computer system for monitoring and diagnosis of business and industrial facilities, as well as for control purposes. The proposed solution represents a computer-network system being a practical tool for communication, control and management of modern plants and enterprises. The applied concept of communication, based on the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), makes a new attempt to solve certain performance problems met when using a (previously developed) Networked Object Monitor (NOM). The principal idea of increasing the performance of NOM lies in employing a common data bus, refereed to as a Diagnostic Service Bus (DSB), in the NOM monitor. The paper also describes a preliminary concept of a network description language (SMOL), which is designed to describe the functions, mechanisms, and network devices and to be a basis for simulation and verification of the NOMmonitor function.
Quality of electric current delivered to the magnets of a particle accelerator is essential for safety and reliability of its operation. Even small discrepancies strongly affect the properties of particle beams. One of the sources of the disturbances is the appearance of induced currents caused by the electromagnetic interactions between the elements of the machine. In this paper the calculations of induced currents in by-pass lines of a SIS100 particle accelerator are presented. In order to find the values of the currents the self-inductances and mutual inductances of the by-pass lines are found. Due to the complex geometry of the line, especially of Ω-shaped dilatations, the numerical approach was employed. The calculations show that the size of induced currents increases with the distance between the cables in an individual bus-bar. The maximum discrepancy of the magnetic field in a dipole magnet is found to be 7.7 μT. The decrease of distance between the cables allows one to obtain a discrepancy of 1.2 μT.