During austral summer phytoplankton is the main component of food of E. superba postlarval stages. Diatomeae: Thalassiosira spp., Nitzschia spp. and tiny Pennatae constitue 98% of all consumed food particles. 91% of algae consumed were of 8—40 μm, and their mean size is 21.4 μm. The mean amount of algae found in of Euphausia superba was about 1700 per individual. The differences in species composition and the size of algae eaten by juvenes, preadult and adult individuals decrease the food competition between particular age groups of E. superba.
The article presents the urban layout, which is a best-preserved example of industrial estates in northern Italy. The subject of the research is a public space of the Crespi d’Adda settlement in the Province of Bergamo in Lombardy. Particular attention is paid to green areas occurring there, and their current use. Program of the public areas was very varied. The main role, besides the factory, held the public park, which is an important compositional and ideological. element of the layout. Research task was to show on example of Crespi, the current situation of former settlements in northern Italy, which are for the author reference material for settlements analyzed in Poland.
Al2O3-Al2TiO5-TiO2 composites can be obtained by the infiltration of molecular titanium precursors into presintered α-Al2O3 (corundum) cylinders. Two titanium tetraalkoxides, and two dialkoxy titanium bis(acetylacetonates) serve as precursors for TiO2 (rutile) and Al2TiO5 (tialite). The precursors were infiltrated as ethanolic solutions. After sintering at 1550, 1600, and 1650°C, the prepared ceramics’ properties were investigated by SEM, in-situ HT-XRD, and conventional XRD. Titanium tetraisopropoxide leads to the highest content of Al2TiO5 in the composite. The more reactive the precursor, considering the Al2O3/precursor interface, the lower and more anisotropic the grain growth, the more homogeneous is the TiO2 contribution and the higher is the content of Al2TiO5. Raising the sintering temperature causes an increase of the crystalline Al2TiO5 content as well as of the grain growth. Moreover, the reactivity of the precursor molecule influences the Ti/(Al + Ti) ratio in the obtained tialite phase.
This paper presents the results of research of Ni/diamond composite coatings produced by electrochemical reduction method. Research was focused on composite coatings with nickel matrix and diamond as a disperse phase and for comparison purposes on nanocrystalline nickel coatings. Ni/diamond composite coatings were produced in baths with different content of nanodiamond powder. The structures of the dispersed phase and the composite coatings were analysed by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Measurements of selected properties of the coatings were performed, including roughness, microhardness, adhesion and abrasive wear resistance. The research results indicate that the produced coatings have a compact structure and good adherence to steel substrate. Moreover, nanocrystalline Ni/diamond composite coatings exhibit greater hardness and reduced abrasive wear resistance compared to nanocrystalline nickel coatings.
The use of biomass in the energy industry is the consequence of ongoing efforts to replace Energy from fossil fuels with energy from renewable sources. However, due to the diversity of the biomass, its use as a solid fuel generates waste with diverse and unstable chemical composition. Waste from biomass combustion is a raw material with a very diverse composition, even in the case of using only one type of biomass. The content of individual elements in fly ash from the combustion of biomass ranges from zero to tens of percent. This makes it difficult to determine the optimal recovery methods. The ashes from the combustion of biomass are most commonly used in the production of building materials and agriculture. This article presents the elemental composition of the most commonly used biomass fuels. The results of the analysis of elemental composition of fly ashes from the combustion of forest and agricultural biomass in fluidized bed boilers used in the commercial power industry were presented. These ashes are characterized by a high content of calcium (12.3–19.4%), silicon (1.2–8.3%), potassium (0.05–1.46%), chlorine (1.1–6.1%), and iron (0.8–6.5%). The discussed ashes contained no sodium. Aluminum was found only in one of the five ashes. Manganese, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, sulfur, bismuth, titanium and zirconium were found in all of the examined ashes. The analysis of elemental composition may allow for a preliminary assessment of the recovery potential of a given ash.
Changes in the amount of basic nitrogen fractions (total, protein and non-protein nitrogen) were studied in an annual cycle. Significant seasonal changes were noted, minima occurring in Antarctic winter and maxima during spring-summer season. These changes are due mainly to high fluctuations of water content in krill in the annual cycle.
The paper is concerned with the most fundamental compositional divide to be found in lyrical discourse, consisting in that the latter one is normally split into an empirical part, presenting the author’s concrete experience, and a focal part, where the author discovers some signifi cant truth or/and changes her attitude towards the world. It is claimed in the paper that, more generally, one of the specifi c linguistic properties of focal fragments is their higher and/or specially underscored informativity, and, in particular, one of the means recruited to emphasize it is inverted word order.
The analysis of provisions of Local Spatial Management Plans and selected cases of practical implementation of such provisions showed, that the provisions of spatial law practically stay without any relation to rules of urban composition and spatial order. The research was limited to analysis of urban composition, without considering all the conditions for planning process and its results. The town planning is treated in this article as planned space resulted from clear urban concept based on general urban composition rules. Town planning does not refer in this case to spatial chaos which can be a result of implementation of Local Spatial Management Plan.
Nematoda, Tardigrada, Rotifera and Crustacea composition in different freshwater habitats on Spitsbergen (Arctic) and King George Island (Antarctic) was presented. In all surveyed groups more genera and species were recorded from Spitsbergen than from King George Island. Habitats richest in taxa were moss banks and thaw ponds, whereas streams were poorest in species. In all groups in both regions cosmopolitan species dominated, but higher number of endemic species was recorded on King George Island. Regarding species composition in surveyed groups it can be suggested that freshwater habitats on Spitsbergen are more similar to each other than those on King George Island.
Changes in body mass and body reserves of Little Auks (Alle alle) were studied throughout the breeding season. Body mass loss after chick hatching was analyzed with respect to two hypotheses: (1) mass loss reflects the stress of reproduction, (2) mass loss is adaptive by reducing power consumption during flight. Body mass of both males and females increased during incubation, dropped abruptly after hatching, and remained stable until the end of the chick-rearing period. These changes were largely due to change in mass of fat reserves. Body mass, fat, and protein reserves, when corrected for body size, did not differ between sexes at the end of incubation. Female size-corrected body mass at that time was correlated with peak body mass of chicks. The estimated energy savings for flight due to the decline in adult body mass after chick hatching were small compared with the total energy expenditure of adults feedings chicks, which did not support hypothesis (2). The contribution to chick feeding was not equal; the ratio of females to males caught with food for chicks was 1.8. Size-corrected body mass during chick-rearing was lower in females, proportional to their higher chick feeding effort compared with males. Females, in contrast to males, lost protein reserves during chick-rearing. Digestive tract mass of adults increased by half throughout the breeding period. These findings supported elements of hypothesis (1). Despite high energy expenditure rates, both sexes had about 10 g of fat reserves at the end of chick feeding. Body mass of both sexes was constant during the greater part of the chick-feeding period. It was suggested therefore that mass loss is regulated with respect to lower fat reserves required during chick-rearing.
Applying the commonly accepted definitions of identity to landscape as our field of research, in particular landscape in protected areas, we assume that identity is the deepest relationship with the landscape (surroundings) perceived by man, with its historical layers of content (the culture and tradition of a place) and form (the canon of a place). An evaluation of change in time should be the keynote of deliberations on place identity. Basing on the current status of research, a review of specialist literature and the author’s experience to date, the above definitions and terms may be referenced to talk about “former” and “new” place identity, especially if we acquiesce to what is termed “the culture of a place” that originates in love for it and willingness to participate in the act of creation that has been launched upon the site. Author tries to explain this fenomenom on example of revitalization, on scale of conntry or even the Europe – the cultural – strategic landscape od Zamość Fortress.
This paper is dedicated to Voivodship Park of Culture and Recreation in Chorzów (Silesia Park) – one of the biggest of its kind in Poland and in Europe (ca. 600 ha of total area). Construction of the Park had begun in 1954 according to the design under the direction of prof. Władysław Niemirski. After many years it became an example of successful land remediation and re-naturalization of anthropogenic landscape. The whole facility though formally created in socrealism style, actually represents classical modernism’s features inspired probably by American parks with a rich recreation program.
Transnational communication lines differ from other objects of the economy both in form and size, and in the task of their geodetic support, which requires the development of special methods for its solution. One of the ways of geodetic support with high accuracy is the choice of optimal (with minimal distortion) geodetic projection for the territories of transnational communication lines. Composite projection is one of the most appropriate methods to choose the optimal projection. This article presents the argumentation and results of experimental calculations for the implementation of optimal geodetic projection for transnational communication lines in Azerbaijan.
The paper presents the results of the electrodeposition of nickel composite coatings reinforced with the ceramic SiC particles. A Watts type galvanic bath modified with various organic additives was used. These additives were: 2-sulfobenzoic acid imide (LSA), dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (DSS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (THAM) and hexamethyldisilizane (HMDS). The nickel composite coating was electrodeposited on a 2xxx aluminum alloy series substrate (EN-AW 2017) with zinc interlayer. Studies concerned the effect of the applied organic additives on properties of composite coatings such as: microstructure, microhardness, adhesion to the substrate, corrosion resistance and roughness. The structure of the coatings was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Based on the studies of zeta potential it was found that the bath modification had a significant impact on the amount of the ceramic phase embedded in metal matrix. The tests conducted in a model 0.01 M KCl solution were not fully representative of the true behavior of particles in a Watts bath.
The report presents research efforts on the synthesis of Zn/MoS2 composite coatings by electrochemical reduction from a sulphate-borate bath containing MoS2 powder as a dispersion phase at various concentrations. The structure of the Zn/MoS2 composite coatings was characterised and the effect of MoS2 particles embedded on their microhardness was evaluated. The coatings produced are characterized by a compact, homogeneous structure and a good connection to a steel substrate. The incorporation of MoS2 particles into the zinc matrix has an influence on the structure and morphology of the Zn/MoS2 composite coatings. It was found that the presence of MoS2 particles increases surface roughness along with coating hardness. The incorporation of the MoS2 particles into the zinc matrix slightly improves the corrosion resistance compared to Zn coatings, making the corrosion potential shift towards more electropositive values.
Transverse effective thermal conductivity of the random unidirectional fibre-reinforced composite was studied. The geometry was circular with random patterns formed using random sequential addition method. Composite geometries for different volume fraction and fibre radii were generated and their effective thermal conductivities (ETC) were calculated. Influence of fibre-matrix conductivity ratio on composite ETC was investigated for high and low values. Patterns were described by a set of coordination numbers (CN) and correlations between ETC and CN were constructed. The correlations were compared with available formulae presented in literature. Additionally, symmetry of the conductivity tensor for the studied geometries of fibres was analysed.
Carotenoids in six species of the lichens from Antarctica (Xanthoria eleguns, Caloplaca regalis, Usnea antarctica, U. fasciata, Himantormia lugubris and Ramalina terebrata) have been investigated by means of column and thin — layer chromatography. The following carotenoids were found: β-carotene, α- and β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin. lycophyll, lycoxanthin, lutein, lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, antheroxanthin, adonixanthin, diatoxanthin, rhodoxanthin, rhodoxanthm derivative, α-doradexanthin, astaxanthin, astaxanthin ester, mutatochrome, mutatoxanthin and cryptoflavin. Most frequently occurred β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin and mutatoxanthin. The total carotenoid content ranged from 10.242 (Ramalina terebrata) to 18.700 mg/g dry weight (Himantormia lugubris) in October and from 4.765 (Ramalina terebrata) to 12.462 mg/g dry weight (Caloplaca regalis) in February.
In this study, free and forced vibration responses of carbon nanotube reinforced uniform and tapered composite beams are investigated. The governing differential equations of motion of a carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced uniform and tapered composite beams are presented in finite element formulation. The validity of the developed formulation is demonstrated by comparing the natural frequencies evaluated using present FEM with those of available in literature. Various parametric studies are also performed to investigate the effect of aspect ratio, percentage of CNT content, ply orientation, and boundary conditions on natural frequencies and mode shapes of a CNT reinforced composite beam. It was observed that the addition of carbon nanotube in fiber reinforced polymer composite (FRP) beam enhances the stiffness of the structure which consequently increases the natural frequencies and alters the mode shapes.
Humic acids, isolated from selected soils of Grønfjorden area (Spitsbergen) were investigated in terms of molecular composition and resistance of decomposition. The degree of soils organic matter stabilization has been assessed with the use of modern instrumental methods (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CP/MAS 13C-NMR). Analysis of the humic acids showed that aromatic compounds prevail in the organic matter formed in cryoconites, located on the glaciers surfaces. The predominance of aliphatic fragments is revealed in the soils in tidal zone that form on the coastal terrace. This could be caused by sedimentation of fresh organic matter exhibiting low decomposition stage due to the harsh climate and processes of hydrogenation in the humic acids, destruction of the C-C bonds and formation of chains with a high hydrogen content. These processes result in formation of aliphatic fragments in the humic acids. In general, soils of the studied region characterizes by low stabilized soil organic matter which is indicated by low aromaticity of the HAs.
The metropolis of Barcelona is one of the first ten Europe's urban agglomerations. The geographic and natural conditions of the city - located in area between the sea and the forested mountain ranges running parallel to the coast and divided by broad river valleys - have considerably influenced the formation of its hybrid urban structure. The heart of the agglomeration is still Barcelona, established by the Phoenicians in a natural port at the foot of the Montjiuc hill, growing together with its neighbouring towns for more than two thousand years now, incessantly filling one fragment of natural landscape after another with urban fabric. Monumental edifices and high-rise buildings erected in all historic periods have been inorming visitors of the power of teh city and the same time defining places which are important for its urban composition and status. Recent decades have brought no revolutionary changes in this trend. What was changed, though, are the architectural forms of those most emblematic structures in the scale of the metropolis.
Most of the medieval Italian cities are civitas born of the ruins of the ancient Roman civilization. Their beauty ist the origin for deep esthetical experiences, to which Sławomir Gzell gave the name bellezza. There are a few characteristic features composing the "picturesqueness", painterliness and harmony of those cities, which lead the observer to strong emotions and constant, sensual exploration. The author contemplates the aspects creating the phenomrnon of beauty of Italian cities and towns - which are the metapfor of human desires and deepest cravings.
The study aimed to apply the protection from damage to engineering facilities located near a planned underwater aggregate extraction. The analysis was conducted in compliance with mining regulations and expert opinions. The study also aimed to assess the precision and correctness of the extraction, due to economic aspects. To reach the goals, in-situ research of the mining area was conducted, with the help of an advanced bathymetric device, based on the USV methodology. The instrument – named by the author as Smart-Sonar-Boat – was especially designed for underwater surveys in open-pit aggregate mines. The study analyzed the “Dwory” open-pit mine, located in southern Poland in the city of Oświęcim. The bathymetric results obtained contributed to improving the observation of changes in the bottom during the extraction. The applied USV method allowed for conducting the reliable evaluation of the mining work.
Dynamic Mine disasters can be induced by the instability and failure of a composite structure of rock and coal layers during coal mining. Coal seam contains many native defects, severely affecting the instability and failure of the compound structure. In this study, the effects of coal persistent joint on the strength and failure characteristics of coal-rock composite samples were evaluated using PFC2D software. The results show that with the increase of included angle α between the loading direction and joint plane direction, the uniaxial compressive stress (UCS) and peak strain of composite samples first decrease and then gradually increase. The elastic moduli of composite samples do not change obviously with α. The peak strain at α of 45° is the lowest, and the UCS at α of 30° is the smallest. This is inconsistent with theoretical analysis of lowest UCS at α of 45°. This is because that the local stress concentration caused by the motion inconformity of composite samples may increase the average axial stress of upper wall in PFC2D software. Moreover, the coal persistent joint promotes the transformation from the unstable crack expansion to the macro-instability of composite samples, especially at α of 30° and 45°. The majority of failures for composite samples occur within the coal, and no obvious damage is observed in rock. Their failure modes are shear failure crossing or along the coal persistent joint. The failure of composite sample at α of 30° is a mixed failure, including the shear failure along the persistent joint in coal and tensile failure of rock induced by the propagation of coal persistent joint.
In this work, the 316L austenitic steel based milled and sintered composites with 0.33 wt% and 1 wt% SiC ultra-fine particles addition have been prepared. The high efficient attrition milling provided an efficient size reduction of the 316L steel grains and homogeneous distribution of the SiC nanoparticles before sintering process. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used for compaction of milled powder mixtures. The effect of SiC addition on the milling efficiency and the structure of the composites have been studied. It was found that the amount of ceramic addition did not influence the efficiency of milling process, powder mixtures with flake like grains have been obtained. On the other hand, the intensive milling assured an optimal coverage of 316L stainless steel grains with submicron sized ceramic particles in both cases. The sintered composites showed high densities with the presence of small amount of closed porosities. Structural, mechanical and tribological examinations of 316L/SiC composites have been performed and presented.
Multilayered composites based on light metals are promising materials in many applications. In the present work the 15-layered clad, composed of alternately stacked of Ti(Gr.1) and AA1050-H24 alloy sheets of 1 mm thick has been investigated with respect to determination of the kinetic of the Al3Ti phase growth. The defect-free multilayered composite was successfully formed by explosive welding technology. Then EXW samples were modified via annealing at the temperature of 600oC in closed die under pressure of 44 MPa for various times ranged between 1 and 10 h. Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy examinations were conducted in order to study the kinetic of the elements migration across the interfaces between the layers of the Al/Ti composite. The macro-scale observations of samples after EXW revealed that wavy interfaces were always formed in layers near the explosive charge. The increase of the distance from the top surface leads to flattening of the interface with very thin reaction layer between Al and Ti sheets. During annealing the kinetic of the Al3Ti phase growth is similar near all interfaces and coincides with data from other works. It was found that despite the loading after 10 h of annealing still only small part of Al-sheets undergoes dissolution and the width of the reaction layer does not exceed 5-8 µm.