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Abstract

Faecal Enterococcus hirae from domestic ducks were studied for their bioactivity to select bioactive strain for more detailed study with its probable use in poultry and also to bring novelty in basic research. After defecation, faeces (n=23, faecal mixture of 40 ducks) were sampled from domestic ducks in eastern Slovakia; birds were aged from eight to 14 weeks. E. hirae strains were identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of flight mass spectrometry with a highly probable species identification score (2.300-3.000) or a secure genus identification/ /probable species identification score (2.000-2.299), confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and phenotypization in accordance with the properties for the type strain E. hirae ATCC 9790. Strains were hemolysis negative (γ-hemolysis), and did not have active enzyme stimulating disorders. Enterocin genes were detected in three strains out of seven. Three out of four Enterocin genes were detected in Kč1/b (Ent A, P, L50A); the most frequently detected was the Ent P gene. The strains inhibited indicator strains E. faecalis, listeriae, but also Escherichia coli and Buttiauxiella strains. Lactic-acid producing E. hirae were mostly susceptible to antibiotics. Based on parameter evaluation, E. hirae Kč1/b, Kč6 can be additionally studied to select the type of bioactive substance.
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Abstract

Rice blast is the main disease of rice plants in Indonesia and several countries worldwide. Controlling this disease using chemical fungicides has harmful effects on the environment. Therefore, we need biocontrol agents which are more environmentally friendly such as rice phyllosphere bacteria. This study aimed to explore bacteria producing bioactive compounds from the rice phyllosphere environment to control blast disease. A total of 88 isolates were successfully isolated from rice leaves in Sukabumi, Situgede, and Jasinga (West Java, Indonesia). From them, we obtained 22 bacteria isolates with antifungal activity against Pyricularia oryzae in vitro assay. In addition, seven non-pathogenic bacteria were obtained from further screening in hypersensitivity, hemolysis and pathogenicity assays, namely STGG 3, STGG 7, STGG 8, STGG 14, SKBV 1, STGV 8, and SKBG 78. To show their antifungal activity, we tested crude extracts of these seven isolates and the results revealed that all the crude extracts can inhibit the growth of P. oryzae. Based on a genetic approach, isolates STGG 3, STGG 7, and STGG 14 were found to have both nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and polyketide synthases (PKS) genes, while isolate SKBV 1 only had the NRPS gene. The NRPS and PKS genes from potential isolates were similar to NRPS and PKS genes of Bacillus sp. in different strains. Furthermore, molecular identification based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the seven potential isolates belong to three genera, i.e. Bacillus (STGG 3, STGG 7, STGG 8, STGG 14, SKBV 1), Enterobacter (STGV 8) and Brachybacterium (SKBG 78). We suggest that the seven isolates found in this study have potency and could be recommended as biocontrol agents of blast disease caused by P. oryzae.
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