In the recent years structural health monitoring (SHM) has gathered spectacular attention in civil engineering applications. Application of such composites enable to improve the safety and performance of structures. Recent advances in nanotechnology have led to development of new family of sensors – self-sensing materials. These materials enable to create the so-called “smart concrete” exhibiting self-sensing ability. Application of selfsensing materials in cement-based materials enables to detect their own state of strain or stress reflected as a change in their electrical properties. The variation of strain or stress is associated with the variation in material’s electrical characteristics, such as resistance or impedance. Therefore, it is possible to efficiently detect and localize crack formation and propagation in selected concrete element. This review is devoted to present contemporary developments in application of nanomaterials in self-sensing cement-based composites and future directions in the field of smart structures.
The article presents research results of the strength parameters of HPC achieved in various research conditions. The research was carried out on substantially different samples, both as to the size as the slenderness ratio. Moreover, the assessment of the effect of speed of a load on strength parameters as well as other factors which in a significant way show the difference in the strength values was made. For comparison, the results were also applied to the relations known in ordinary concrete.
To investigate the mechanical properties of tunnel lining concrete under different moderate-low strain rates after high temperatures, uniaxial compression tests in association with ultrasonic tests were performed. Test results show that the ultrasonic wave velocity and mass loss of concrete specimen begin to sharply drop after high temperatures of 600°C and 400°C, respectively, at the strain rates of 10‒5s‒1 to 10‒2s‒1. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of specimen increase with increasing strain rate after the same temperature, but it is difficult to obtain an evident change law of peak strain with increasing strain rate. The compressive strength of concrete specimen decreases first, and then increases, but decreases again in the temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800°C at the strain rates of 10‒5s‒1 to 10‒2s‒1. It can be observed that the strain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength of specimen increases with increasing temperature. In addition, the peak strain also increases but the elastic modulus decreases substantially with increasing temperature under the same strain rate.
A large number of infrastructural concrete buildings are protected against aggressive environments by coating systems. The functionality of these coating systems is mainly affected by the composition and thickness of the individual polymeric layers. For the first time ever, a mobile nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensor allows a non-destructive determination of these important parameters on the building site. However, before this technique can be used on steel-reinforced concrete elements, the potential effect of the reinforcement on the measurement, i.e. the NMR signal, needs to be studied. The results show a shift of the NMR profile as well as an increase of the signals amplitude in the case of the reinforced samples, while calculating the thickness of concrete coating leading to identical results.
This paper presents research results of composite tubes filled with self-compacting concrete. The impact of the selected materials and geometric factors on resistance to the vertical shear was evaluated in this study. The resistance of the tested members was compared with recommendations given in Eurocode PN-EN 1994-1-1. From the results obtained in the tests it can be deduced that more parameters should be taken into consideration when determining resistance to the vertical shear in the interface between steel and concrete than PN-EN 1994-1-1 recommends.
This paper deals with the prevention of failure of structural elements made of reinforced concrete. It discusses preservice cracks in the concrete decks of an underground parking facility. The cracks were assessed by analyzing their morphology. The results were used to determine the crack causes and the mechanisms of their initiation and growth. Some design solutions to prevent or reduce the occurrence of pre-service cracks are also presented.
Self-curing concrete SC is a concrete type that can be cured without using any external curing regimes. It can perform by several methods such as using lightweight aggregate or chemical agents. In this research chemical curing agent is used to produce SC. This paper reports the results of a research study conducted to evaluate the effect of sulfates on the performance of self-curing concrete compared to ordinary concrete. Samples are immersed in sodium sulfate Na2S04 solution of 4% concentration. Results are measured in terms of compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and mass loss. It was found that the rate of strength loss is noticed at ordinary concrete compared to SC concrete. Sulfate resistance is improved when using self-curing concrete. This improvement appears to be dependent on using a chemical curing agent.
Concrete is generally produced using materials such as crushed stone and river sand to the extent of about 80‒90% combined with cement and water. These materials are quarried from natural sources. Their depletion will cause strain on the environment. To prevent this, bottom ash produced at thermal power plants by burning of coal has been utilized in this investigation into making concrete. The experimental investigation presents the development of concrete containing lignite coal bottom ash as fine aggregate in various percentages of 25, 50, and 100. Compressive, split tensile, and flexural strength as part of mechanical properties; acid, sulphate attack, and sustainability under elevated temperature as part of durability properties, were determined. These properties were compared with that of normal concrete. It was concluded from this investigation that bottom ash to an extent of 25% can be substituted in place of river sand in the production of concrete.
Hallmark professionalism in probabilistic analysis is to quantify the uncertainties involved in construction materials subject to intrinsic randomness in its physical and mechanical properties and is now gaining popularity in civil engineering arena. As well, knowledge of behaviour of materials is continuously evolving and its statistical descriptors are also changing when more and more data collected or even data updated and hence reliability analysis has to be carried out with the updated data as a continuous process. As per the committee report ACI 544.2R, it is found that there is no attempt made for probabilistic relation between cube compressive strength and cylinder compressive strength for fiber reinforced concrete. In consequence of this report, a robust relation between cube and cylinder of experimentally conducted compressive strength was established by Monte-Carlo simulation technique for different types of fibrous concrete like steel, alkali resistant glass and polyester fibrous concrete before and after thermoshock considering various uncertainties. Nevertheless simulated probabilistic modals, characteristic modals, optimized factor of safety and allowable designed cylinder compressive strength have been developed from the drawn probability of failure graph, which exhibits robust performance in realistic Civil Engineering materials and structures.
Modern regulations concerning railway bridges are based on the approach of structural dynamics, which is described in PN-EN standards. This paper presents the results of theoretical dynamic analysis of the HSLM-A train set loading on the structure of a pre-stressed concrete arch bridge - the first railway bridge of its type which was built in Poland (completed in 1959). The recommendations of PN-EN have been followed and modal analysis was carried out to define the sensitivity of the structure to chosen eigenforms. Additionally the paper presents a course of calculations and the conclusions obtained from the analysis of displacements, accelerations, and bending moments induced in the structure through a simulated passage of a high-speed train in the context of the requirements of PN-EN Standards. The conclusions from the current calculations can be used for dynamic analysis of bridges of similar structural solutions.
This paper addresses the tensile and flexural strength of HPC (high performance concrete). The aim of the paper is to analyse the efficiency of models proposed in different codes. In particular, three design procedures from: the ACI 318 , Eurocode 2  and the Model Code 2010  are considered. The associations between design tensile strength of concrete obtained from these three codes and compressive strength are compared with experimental results of tensile strength and flexural strength by statistical tools. Experimental results of tensile strength were obtained in the splitting test. Based on this comparison, conclusions are drawn according to the fit between the design methods and the test data. The comparison shows that tensile strength and flexural strength of HPC depend on more influential factors and not only compressive strength.
Numerical analysis of the tensioning cables anchorage zone of a bridge superstructure is presented in this paper. It aims to identify why severe concrete cracking occurs during the tensioning process in the vicinity of anchor heads. In order to simulate the tensioning, among others, a so-called local numerical model of a section of the bridge superstructure was created in the Abaqus Finite Element Method (FEM) environment. The model contains all the important elements of the analyzed section of the concrete bridge superstructure, namely concrete, reinforcement and the anchoring system. FEM analyses are performed with the inclusion of both material and geometric nonlinearities. Concrete Damage Plasticity (CDP) constitutive relation from Abaqus is used to describe nonlinear concrete behaviour, which enables analysis of concrete damage and crack propagation. These numerical FEM results are then compared with actual crack patterns, which have been spotted and inventoried at the bridge construction site.
Statistical conformity criteria for the compressive strength of concrete are a matter of debate. The criteria can have prejudicial effects on construction quality and reliability. Hence, the usefulness of statistical criteria for the small sample size n = 3 is questioned. These defects can cause a reduction in the quality of produced concrete and, consequently, too much risk for the recipient (investor). For this reason, the influence of conformity control on the value of the reliability index of concrete and reinforced concrete has been determined. The authors limited their consideration to the recommended standards PN-EN 206-1, PN-EN 1992 and ISO 2394 method of reliability index, which belongs to the analytical methods FORM (First Order Reliability Method). It assumes that the random variables are defined by two parameters of the normal distribution or an equivalent normal: the mean and the standard deviation. The impact of conformity control for n = 3 for concrete structures, designed according to the Eurocode 1992, for which the compressive strength of concrete is the capacity dominant parameter (sensitivity factor of dominating resistance parameter according to the FORM is 0.8), has been determined by evaluation of the reliability index.
Light-weight Self-Compacting Concrete (LWSCC) might be the answer to the increasing construction requirements of slenderer and more heavily reinforced structural elements. However there are limited studies to prove its ability in real construction projects. In conjunction with the traditional methods, artificial intelligent based modeling methods have been applied to simulate the non-linear and complex behavior of concrete in the recent years. Twenty one laboratory experimental investigations on the mechanical properties of LWSCC; published in recent 12 years have been analyzed in this study. The collected information is used to investigate the relationship between compressive strength, elasticity modulus and splitting tensile strength in LWSCC. Analytically proposed model in ANFIS is verified by multi factor linear regression analysis. Comparing the estimated results, ANFIS analysis gives more compatible results and is preferred to estimate the properties of LWSCC.
The aim of this paper is to present an assessment of the slip influence on the deflection of the steel plate-concrete composite beams, which are a new type of a design concept. The proposed method is based on the procedure included in the PN-EN 1992-1-1, which has been modified with taking into consideration interface slip. The theoretical analysis was verified by experimental studies.
Considering concrete nonlinearity, the wave height limit between small and large amplitude sloshing is defined based on the Bernoulli equation. Based on Navier-Stokes equations, the mathematical model of large amplitude sloshing is established for a Concrete Rectangle Liquid-Storage Structure (CRLSS). The results show that the seismic response of a CRLSS increases with the increase of seismic intensity. Under different seismic fortification intensities, the change in trend of wave height, wallboard displacement, and stress are the same, but the amplitudes are not. The areas of stress concentration appear mainly at the connections between the wallboards, and the connections between the wallboard and the bottom.
Recycling construction and demolition waste not only reduces project costs; and saves natural resources, but also solves the environmental threat caused by construction waste disposal. In this paper, C25 waste road concrete is used as an experimental material, the uniaxial compression strength and tensile splitting strength of C25 RAC whose coarse aggregate replacement rate is 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% are tested under the condition that the water-to-cement ratio is 0.47, 0.55 and 0.61. The results show: (1) the uniaxial compression strength and tensile splitting strength decrease with the increase of RAC; (2) for concrete with the same water-to-cement ratio, when the coarse aggregate replacement rate changes from 0% to 50%, the uniaxial compression strength and tensile splitting strength of RAC changes slightly. When the coarse aggregate replacement rate changes from 50% to 100%, the uniaxial compression strength and tensile splitting strength of RAC decreases rapidly