Anaphylaxis is an increasing problem in public health. Th e food allergens (mainly milk, eggs, and peanuts) are the most frequent cause of anaphylaxis in children and youth. In order to defi ne the cause of anaphylaxis, skin tests, the determination of the concentration of specifi c IgE in the blood and basophil activation test are conducted. In vitro tests are preferred due to the risk of allergic response during in vivo tests. Component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) is an additional tool in allergology, recommended in the third level of diagnostics when there are diagnostic doubts aft er the above mentioned tests have been carried out. The paper presents 3 cases of patients with anaphylactic response, and the application of CRD in these patients helped in planning the treatment. Patient 1 is a 4-year-old boy with diagnosed atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma reported an anaphylactic shock at the age of seven months caused by cow’s milk and the exacerbation of bronchial asthma aft er eating some fruit. Patient 2 is a 35-year-old woman who has had anaphylactic shock three times: in June 2015, 2016, and 2017 and associates these episodes with the consumption of dumplings with a caramel, bun, and the last episode took place during physical exertion few hours aft er eating waffl e. Patient 3 is a 26-year-old man with one-time loss of consciousness after eating mixed nuts and drinking beer. CRD off ers the possibility to conduct a detailed diagnostic evaluation of patients with a history of anaphylactic reaction.
Constantly increasing prevalence of allergic diseases determines the attempts to elaborate the therapeutic strategies activating immune tolerance to particular allergen. Our current research focuses on the antigen-specifi c action of CD8+ suppressor T (Ts) lymphocytes induced in mice by intravenous administration of a high dose of haptenated syngeneic erythrocytes. While the regulatory activity of Ts cells mediated by exosome-delivered miRNA-150 is well defi ned, the mechanism of their induction remained unclear. Th erefore, the current studies investigated the immune eff ects induced in mice by intravenous administration of contact allergens coupled to syngeneic erythrocytes. In mouse models of hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and delayed-type hypersensitivity to ovalbumin, we have shown that intravenous administration of hapten-coupled erythrocytes failed to induce CHS effector cells. Moreover, hapten-induced CHS reaction occurred to be suppressed in mice intravenously administered with syngeneic erythrocytes coupled with protein allergen. Finally, we have demonstrated that intravenously administered allergen induces immune tolerance only when bound to syngeneic erythrocytes, proving that intravenously delivered allergens are deprived of their immunizing properties when coupled with membrane of self cells. Altogether, our current studies suggest that alteration of self cell membrane by allergen binding is enough to induce Ts cell-mediated immune tolerance to nonpathogenic agents, which express a great translational potential in such conditions as allergies and hypersensitivity-related autoimmune disorders.