The main purpose of the presented research is to investigate the partial discharge (PD) phenomenon variability under long-term AC voltage with particular consideration of the selected physical quantities changes while measured and registered by the acoustic emission method (AE). During the research a PD model source generating surface discharges is immersed in the brand new insulation mineral oil. Acoustic signals generated by the continuously occurred PDs within 168 hours are registered. Several qualitative and quantitative indicators are assigned to describe the PD variability in time. Furthermore, some longterm characteristics of the applied PD model source in mineral oil, are also presented according to acoustic signals emitted by the PD. Finally, various statistical tools are applied for the results analysis and presentation. Despite there are numerous contemporary research papers dealing with long-term PD analysis, such complementary and multiparametric approach has not been presented so far, regarding the presented research. According to the presented research from among all assigned indicators there are discriminated descriptors that could depend on PD long-term duration. On the grounds of the regression models analysis there are discovered trends that potentially allow to apply the results for modeling of the PD variability in time using the acoustic emission method. Subsequently such an approach may potentially support the development and extend the abilities of the diagnostic tools and maintenance policy in electrical power industry.
In the paper, the results of investigations on the properties of acoustic emission signals generated in a tested pressure vessel are presented. The investigations were performed by repeating several times the following procedure: an increase in pressure, maintaining a given pressure level, a further increase in pressure, and then maintaining the pressure at new determined level. During the tests the acoustic emission signals were recorded by the measuring system 8AE-PD with piezoelectric sensors D9241A. The used eight-channel measuring system 8AE-PD enables the monitoring, recording and then basic and advanced analysis of signals. The results of basic analysis carried out in domain of time and the results of advanced analysis carried out in the discrimination threshold domain of the recorded acoustic emission signals are presented in the paper. In the framework of the advanced analysis, results are described by the defined by the author descriptors with acronyms ADC, ADP and ADNC. Such description is based on identifying the properties of amplitude distributions of acoustic emission signals by assigning them the level of advancement. It is shown that for signals including continoues AE or single burst AE signals descriptions of such registered signals by means of ADC, ADP and ADNC descriptors and by Upp and Urms descriptors provide identical ordering of registered acoustic emission signals. For complex signals, the description using ADC, ADP and ADNC descriptors based on the analysis of amplitude distributions of recorded signals gives the order of signals with more accurate connection with deformational processes being sources of acoustic emission signals.
Q235 steel is widely used in engineering and construction. Therefore, it is important to identify the damage mechanism and the acoustic emission (AE) response of the material to ensure the safety of structures. In this study, an AE monitor system and an in situ tensile test with an optical microscope were used to investigate the AE response and insight into the damage process of Q235 steel. The surface of the specimen was polished and etched before the test in order to improve the quality of micrographs. Two kinds of AE responses, namely a burst and a continuous signal, were recorded by the AE monitor system during the test. Based on the in situ test, it was observed that the damage of Q235 steel was induced by the crystal slip and the inclusion fracture. Since the crystal slip was an ongoing process, continuous AE signals were produced, while burst AE signals were possibly produced by the inclusion fracture which occurred suddenly with released higher energy. In addition, a great number of AE signals with high amplitude were observed during the yielding stage and then the number and amplitude decreased.
One of the most important issues that power companies face when trying to reduce time and cost maintenance is condition monitoring. In electricity market worldwide, a significant amount of electrical energy is produced by synchronous machines. One type of these machines is brushless synchronous generators in which the rectifier bridge is mounted on rotating shafts. Since bridge terminals are not accessible in this type of generators, it is difficult to detect the possible faults on the rectifier bridge. Therefore, in this paper, a method is proposed to facilitate the rectifier fault detection. The proposed method is then evaluated by applying two conventional kinds of faults on rectifier bridges including one diode open-circuit and two diode open-circuit (one phase open-circuit of the armature winding in the auxiliary generator in experimental set). To extract suitable features for fault detection, the wavelet transform has been used on recorded audio signals. For classifying faulty and healthy states, K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) supervised classification method was used. The results show a good accuracy of the proposed method.
Non-invasive damage monitoring of concrete structures by means of Acoustic Emission (AE) requires multitransducers, multi-channel acquisition, high sampling frequency and long observation time. Owing to its propagation in concrete, the signal from AE reduces its amplitude during the propagation, and, consequently, some events can be lost due to lower signal intensity than the trigger level set on one sensor only. The innovative proposal discussed in the paper consists in the introduction of a Flat Amplifier and Trigger generator block (FAT) in order to generate a logical trigger when the AE is detected by any transducer. Experimental tests confirm the effectiveness of the FAT to acquire all the AE events and to increase the evaluation accuracy of damage indexes.
An acoustic emission method (AE) is widespread and often applied for partial discharge (PD) diagnostics, mainly due to its ease of application as well as noninvasiveness and relatively high sensitivity. This paper presents comparative analysis of AE signals measurement results archived under laboratory conditions as well as on-site actual AE signals generated by inside PDs in electrical power transformer during its normal service. Three different PD model sources are applied for laboratory research: point to point, multipoint to plate and surface type. A typical measuring set up commonly used for on-site transformer PD diagnostics is provided for the laboratory tasks: piezoelectric joint transducer, preamplifier, amplifier and measuring PC interface. During the on-site research there are three measuring tracks applied simultaneously. Time domain, time-frequency domain and statistical tools are used for registered AE signals analysis. A number of descriptors are proposed as a result of the analysis. In the paper, at- tempt of AE signals descriptors, archived under laboratory condition application possibilities for on-site PD diagnostics of power transformers during normal service is made.
The article presents the results concerning the use of clustering methods to identify signals of acoustic emission (AE) generated by partial discharge (PD) in oil-paper insulation. The conducted testing featured qualitative analysis of the following clustering methods: single linkage, complete linkage, average linkage, centroid linkage and Ward linkage. The purpose of the analysis was to search the tested series of AE signal measurements, deriving from three various PD forms, for elements of grouping (clusters), which are most similar to one another and maximally different than in other groups in terms of a specific feature or adopted criteria. Then, the conducted clustering was used as a basis for attempting to assess the effectiveness of identification of particular PD forms that modelled exemplary defects of the power transformer’s oil-paper insulation system. The relevant analyses and simulations were conducted using the Matlab estimation environment and the clustering procedures available in it. The conducted tests featured analyses of the results of the series of measurements of acoustic emissions generated by the basic PD forms, which were obtained in laboratory conditions using spark gap systems that modelled the defects of the power transformer’s oil-paper insulation.
A fault diagnostics system of three-phase induction motors was implemented. The implemented system was based on acoustic signals of three-phase induction motors. A feature extraction step was performed using SMOFS-20-EXPANDED (shortened method of frequencies selection-20-Expanded). A classification step was performed using 3 classifiers: LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis), NBC (Naive Bayes Classifier), CT (Classification Tree). An analysis was carried out for incipient states of three-phase induction motors measured under laboratory conditions. The author measured and analysed the following states of motors: healthy motor, motor with one faulty rotor bar, motor with two faulty rotor bars, motor with faulty ring of squirrel-cage. Measured and analysed states were caused by natural degradation of parts of the machine. The efficiency of recognition of the analysed states was good. The proposed method of fault diagnostics can find application in protection of three-phase induction motors.
A computer measurement system, designed and built by authors, dedicated to location and description of partial discharges (PD) in oil power transformers examined by means of the acoustic emission (AE) method is presented. The measurement system is equipped with 8 measurement channels and ensures: monitoring of signals, registration of data in real time within a band of 25–1000 kHz in laboratory and real conditions, basic and advanced analysis of recorded signals. The basic analysis carried out in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains deals with general properties of the AE signals coming from PDs. The advanced analysis, performed in the discrimination threshold domain, results in identification of signals coming from different acoustic sources as well as location of these sources in the examined transformers in terms of defined by authors descriptors and maps of these descriptors on the side walls of the tested transformer tank. Examples of typical results of laboratory tests carried out with the use of the built-in measurement system are presented.
In this paper the influence of high power airborne ultrasound on drying biological material (Lobo apple) properties is considered. Apple samples were dried convectively at 75 ◦C and air flow of 2 m/s with and without ultrasound assist at 200W. During experiments, sun-drenched and not sun-drenched part of fruits were considered separately to show, how the maturity of the product influences dry material properties. Dried apple crisps in a size of small bars were subjected to compression tests during which acoustic emission (AE) was used. Analysis of AE and strength test results shows that correlations between received acoustic signals and sensory attributes (crispness, brittleness) of dried apples can be found. It was noted that ultrasound improved fruit brittleness in comparison with pure convective processes, where fruit maturity determines a kind of destruction and behaviour of dried apple crisps.
An alternative method for analysis of acoustic emission (AE) signals generated by partial discharges (PD), based on a correlation between voltage phase run and AE pulses, so called phase resolved PD pattern (PRPD), is presented in the paper. PRPD pattern is a well-known analysis tool commonly used in such PD diagnostic methods as conventional electrical and UHF ones. Moreover, it yields various signal analysis abilities and allows a direct correlation indication between measurement results achieved using different methods. An original PRPD measurement methodology applied for AE method as well as some exemplary measurement results and further data analysis capabilities are presented in the paper. Also a comparative analysis of PRPD patterns achieved using various measurement methods and different PD source configurations have been investigated. All presented experiments were done under laboratory conditions using PD model sources immersed in the insulation oil. The main purpose of the presented research is to indicate an all-embracing analytical tool that yields an ability to direct comparison (qualitative as well as quantitative) of the AE measurement results with other commonly applied PD measurement methods. The presented results give a solid fundamental for further research work concerning a direct correlation method for AE and other described in the paper diagnostic techniques, mainly in order to continue PD phenomena analysis and assessment in real life high voltage apparatus insulation systems under normal onsite operation conditions.
On-load tap changers (OLTC) are some of the main transformer elements that make voltage adjustment in a power network possible. Their failures often cause shutdowns of distribution transformers. The paper presents research work aimed at the assessment of the technical condition of OLTCs by the acoustic emission method (EA). This method makes the OLTC diagnosis possible without the need of disconnecting the transformer from the system. The measurements were taken in laboratory conditions. The influence on the operation non-concurrence of the power tap changer contacts on the AE registered signals has been investigated. The signals registered were subjected to analyses in the time and time-frequency domains. The result analysis in the time domain was carried out using the Hilbert transform and calculating characteristic times for the particular runs. A short-time Fourier transform was used for the assessment of results in the time-frequency domain.
The condition of the conical surface of the needle and seat in a fuel atomizer can be assessed by using the acoustic emission method. The assessment of this conical tribological pair can be performed by up-to-date measurement methods that substantially enhance the quality of evaluating the technical condition of conical surfaces of the atomizer needle and seat.
The purpose of this work is to distinguish between Acoustic Emission (AE) signals coming from mechanical friction and AE signals coming from concrete cracking, recorded during fourteen seismic simulations conducted with the shaking table of the University of Granada on a reinforced concrete slab supported on four steel columns. To this end, a particular criterion is established based on the Root Mean Square of the AE waveforms calculated in two different temporal windows. This criterion includes a parameter calculated by optimizing the correlation between the mechanical energy dissipated by the specimen (calculated by means of measurements with accelerometers and displacement transducers) and the energy obtained from the AE signals recorded by low-frequency piezoelectric sensors located on the specimen. The final goal of this project, initiated four years ago, is to provide a reliable evaluation of the level of damage of Reinforced Concrete specimens by means of AE signals to be used in future Structural Health Monitoring strategies involving RC structures.
This paper presents results obtained from a laboratory investigation conducted on material from a pressure vessel after longterm operation in the oil refinery industry. The tested material contained structural defects which arose from improper heat treatment during steel plate manufacturing. Complex tensile tests with acoustic emission signal recording were conducted on both notched and unnotched specimens. The detailed analysis of different acoustic emission criteria allowed as to detect each stage of plastic deformation and microstructural damage processes after a long-term operation, and unused carbon steels during quasi-static axial tension testing. The acoustic emission activity, generated in the typical stages of material deformation, was correlated by microscopy observations during the tensile test. The results are to be used as the basis for new algorithms for the assessment of the structural condition of in-service pressure equipment.
The paper presents the microscopic and mechanoacoustic study of degradation processes of the porcelain material C 130 type. This kind of material is used in the production of the most durable and reliable electrotechnical elements. Raw material composition of the studied porcelain was modified. This had an impact on the inner properties, cohesion and – in consequence – on operational properties of the material. Using mechanical-acoustic and microscopic methods of testing of small-size samples that were subjected to compression, it was possible to distinguish successive stages of degradation of the porcelain structure. These stages were generally typical of the porcelain materials. In the authors’ opinion, they are connected to the ageing process happening over many years of work under operating conditions. Optimization of composition and technological properties – important during technological processes – resulted in a slight decrease in inner cohesion of the porcelain. When compared to the reference material – typical domestic C 130 material, mechanical strength was somewhat lower. Carried out investigations proved that resistance of the investigated material to the ageing degradation process – during long term operation – also decreased. The improvement of technological parameters and the reduction in the number of defective elements occurred simultaneously with some decrease in the operational parameters of the material. To restore their initial high level, further work is needed to optimize the raw material composition of the porcelain.
Topics of this article concern the study of the fundamental nature of the sonoluminescence phenomenon occurring in liquids. At the Institute of Electrical Power Engineering at Opole University of Technology the interest in that phenomenon known as secondary phenomenon of cavitation caused by ultrasound became the genesis of a research project concerning acoustic cavitation in mineral insulation oils in which a number of additional experiments performed in the laboratory aimed to determine the influence of a number of acoustic parameters on the process of the studied phenomenona. The main purpose of scientific research subject undertaken was to determine the relationship between the generation of partial discharges in high-voltage power transformer insulation systems, the issue of gas bubbles in transformer oils and the generated acoustic emission signals. It should be noted that currently in the standard approach, the phenomenon of generation of acoustic waves accompanying the occurrence of partial discharges is generally treated as a secondary phenomenon, but it can also be a source of many other related phenomena. Based on our review of the literature data on those referred subjects taken, it must be noted, that this problem has not been clearly resolved, and the description of the relationship between these phenomena is still an open question. This study doesn’t prove all in line with the objective of the study, but can be an inspiration for new research project in the future in this topic. Solution of this problem could be a step forward in the diagnostics of insulation systems for electrical Power devices based on non-invasive acoustic emission method.
The objective of this investigation was to test the effectiveness of the Acoustic Emission (AE) measurements in determining the critical stresses during four-point bending of mortar beams. Within the measuring procedure the parameter σcr/σ300 was calculated and analysed. Additionally, the influence of cement replacement by high calcium fly ash (HCFA) on the process of crack healing was discussed. Mortar beams with different content of HCFA and reinforced by steel microfibres were prepared for tests. After curing in standard conditions the beams were subjected to four-point bending test in order to introduce the pre-cracking. Thereafter the beams were cured in the lime water and loaded after 56 and 112 days in the same way as for the first time. Additionally the microstructure of mortars was studied in a stereo optical microscope as well in an electron scanning microscope including the Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The results of microstructural characterization of mortar containing HCFA from lignite combustion are presented. The applied load level slightly exceeded the critical stress, producing intense crack growth processes however did not significant affected the load capacity of the beams. During the consecutive loading the decreasing tendency of σcr/σ300 ratio was noted. The obtained results confirm that the latter parameter can be applied as a measure of the composite degradation level for the elements carrying the repeated loads of amplitude close to the critical stress of the structure and also that the cement replacement with HCFA influences the process of crack healing.
The purpose of this paper was to search the relations between the structure of the compressed expanded graphite – polymer – turbostratic carbon composites on successive stages of technological treatment and parameters describing the acoustic emission phenomena in these materials. The acoustic emission method can be used for measurements of changes in the structure and many different properties of materials. These investigations are a continuation of our earlier studies concerning physical, mechanical and chemical properties of porous composites created on the basis of a compressed expanded graphite matrix, obtained after successive technological procedures of impregnation, polymerization and carbonization of polyfurfuryl alcohol. The aim of this work was to investigate materials obtained at different levels of technological processing, thus with different densities, porosity, physical and chemical properties, by using the acoustic emission method. In compressed expanded graphite composites structures one can differentiate two basic directions: perpendicular to the bedding plane of graphite flakes and parallel to this one. The all presented results were obtained for the uniaxial strain applied in the direction perpendicular to the bedding plane of the composite structure. Analysis of acoustic emission parameters provides information on physical and chemical processes in these materials.
This experimental paper comprises the results of acoustic emission (AE), microscopic and ultrasonic measurements of samples subjected to slowly increasing compressive stress. On the basis of conducted measurements the successive stages of the material structural degradation have been recognized. The objects of study were samples made of C 120 aluminous porcelain. The investigated material has found at present the application in the fabrication of technical elements like overhead power line insulators. In the case of such objects, not only high mechanical strength, but especially elevated durability as well as operational reliability are required. The expected "life time" of net insulators during exploitation is about 40 years. The analysis of obtained mechanoacoustic dependences pointed out a complex mechanism of degradation of the material. Microscopic investigation of samples, which were stressed to different levels of load, enabled to specify the development of gradual growth of microcracks and successive crushing out of elements of the structure. These processes appear to be similar to the ageing processes occurring in the material during long period of exploitation under a working load. Three stages of the structure degradation were distinguished. The preliminary and subcritical ones show low or moderate intensity of AE signals and considerable variety for the particular samples. The critical stage directly precedes the destructtion of samples. Its range is relatively narrow and reveals the AE activity of high energy. The effectiveness of dispersive and fibrous reinforcement of modern aluminous porcelain C 120 type has been described. Structural strengthening by corundum grains and mullite needle shaped crystals improves mechanical parameters and distinguishes this material from typical aluminosilicate ceramics. The presented results enable drawing up the conclusions concerning the resistance of investigated material to the ageing degradation process development during long term operation.
In recent times, the concept of hard turning has gained awareness in metal cutting as it can apparently replace the traditional process cycle of turning, heat treating, and finish grinding for assembly of hard, wear-resistant steel parts. The major apprehension in hard turning is the tool vibration, which affects the surface finish of the work piece, has to be controlled and monitored. In order to control tool vibration in metal cutting, a magnetorheological fluid damper which has received great attention in suppressing tool vibration was developed and used. Also an attempt has been made in this study to monitor tool vibration using the skewness and kurtosis parameters of acoustic emission (AE) signal for the tool holder with and without magnetorheological damper. Cutting experiments were conducted to arrive at a set of operating parameters that can offer better damping characteristics to minimize tool vibration during turning of AISI4340 steel of 46 HRC using hard metal insert with sculptured rake face. From the results, it was observed that the presence of magnetorheological damper during hard turning reduces tool vibration and there exist a strong relationship between tool vibration and acoustic emission (AERMS) signals to monitor tool condition. This work provides momentous understanding on the usage of magnetorheological damper and AE sensor to control and monitor the tool condition during turning of hardened AISI4340 steel.