The paper presents a short description of the model of the phenomenon of droplet spreading in presence of a liquid film, as well as the experimental facility, calculations methodology and results of experimental research concerning determination of the boundary angle at which droplet begins to slide on the horizontal or inclined surface of the plate. Values of boundary angle have been applied to estimate the microscopic dynamic advanced angle of the droplet on the flat surface in presence of a liquid film.
One of the parameters which enables the evaluation of carbonaceous material is the thermal effect of wetting. The value of the heat of wetting provides information about the surface energy and the texture of the materials immersed in the wetting liquid. Knowledge of the heat of wetting of the carbonaceous materials is used to research their sorption properties, to characterize the structure and to determine the surface area. A method of me asuring the wetting of the carbonaceous materials as one of the methods to evaluate the carbonaceous materials was proposed. On the basis of research which was conducted, one determined the heat of wetting black coal from the Brzeszcze mine by methyl alcohol and lignites from the Turów and Bełchatów mine. One of activated carbons furnished by the Gryfskand company (WD-extra) was selected for the purpose of the comparison. The enthalpy of immersion was calculated on the basis of the results, the surface of the carbonaceous materials that were studied. It was revealed that the energetic effects of wetting depend both upon the microporous structure and the chemical nature of the adsorbent. The greatest heat of wetting calculated per 1g of the carbonaceous material, which has the most developed surface area and micropore volume, was obtained for the activated carbon. However, the heat of wetting does not increase proportionally to the surface area. The study revealed that the thermal effects of wetting for fossil coal decreases with the increasing of the surface area. The linear relationship was obtained for the three samples which were studied. The highest thermal effects (ΔT) and heat of wetting (Q) among the fossil coals was determined for the lignite from the Bełchatów mine, even though this coal had the least-developed porous structure. One may discern a clear influence of the swelling process upon the measured thermal effects on the basis of this sample.
Determination of the physico-chemical interactions between liquid and solid substances is a key technological factor in many industrial processes in metallurgy, electronics or the aviation industry, where technological processes are based on soldering/brazing technologies. Understanding of the bonding process, reactions between materials and their dynamics enables to make research on new materials and joining technologies, as well as to optimise and compare the existing ones. The paper focuses on a wetting force measurement method and its practical implementation in a laboratory stand – an integrated platform for automatic wetting force measurement at high temperatures. As an example of using the laboratory stand, an analysis of Ag addition to Cu-based brazes, including measurement of the wetting force and the wetting angle, is presented.
This paper presents a method for quantitative assessment of the mechanisms of nucleation and granules growth by layering in the process of bed wetting during periodic disc granulation. This study included two initial, consecutive stages of a process with defined time courses. The first phase was a time period, in which only formation of new nuclei took place, while in the second stage simultaneous nucleation and growth of granules as a result of sticking raw material grains to pre-existing nuclei occurred. Different kinds of binding liquid were used for bed wetting in each phase. In the first phase, an aqueous solution of dye was used, and pure distilled water in the second stage. The contribution of particular mechanisms to the formation of agglomerates at different time points within the second phase of the process was determined in this study. To do that the results of bed granulometric analysis, mass balance of size fractions and the analysis of contents of a marker (dye) delivered to the bed with the binding liquid during the first phase in agglomerates were used. To assess the concentration of the dye in different size fractions of the batch, spectrophotometric analysis was utilised. The study was performed using UV-VIS JASCO V-630 spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. The sieve analysis, spectrophotometric studies and mass balance were used to determine changes in the weight of the dye containing nuclei and of the nuclei containing no dye. The aforementioned analyses were also used to assess changes in the weight of formed granules and of raw material particles attached to nuclei during simultaneous nucleation and growth of granules.
104 algal taxa (31 blue-green algae, 48 diatoms and 25 green algae) were identified from 18 stands of tundra soils in the Kaffiöyra Plain (Oscar II Land, NW Spitsbergen). Basing on numerical analysis by the reciprocal averaging method and on hierarchic classification based on ."distinguishing species", two groups of stands were distinguished: moist and wet ones characterized by diatoms, and dry and drying ones characterized by blue-green algae.
The work presents investigation on the water droplet impingement at a substrate with three different surface coating. The experiments are carried out for two temperatures of the surface: 23ºC (room temperature) and -10ºC. The water droplet contact is recorded via ultra-fast camera and simultaneously via fast thermographic camera. The wetting properties are changing for subzero temperatures of substrates.
In the paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of preliminary wetting of high-silica base during preparation of moulding sands containing a selected grade of sodium water-glass, designed for hardening by traditional drying or by electromagnetic microwaves at 2.45 GHz. In the research, some water was dosed during stirring the sandmix before adding 1.5 wt% of the binder that was unmodified sodium water-glass grade 137, characterised by high molar module within 3.2 to 3.4. Scope of the examinations included determining the effect of wetting the base on mechanical parameters like compression, bending and tensile strength, as well as on technological parameters like permeability, abrasion resistance and apparent density. The research revealed a significant positive effect of adding water to wet surfaces of high-silica base grains on mechanical properties and quality of moulding sands hardened by physical methods, in particular by microwave heating
Some materials-related microstructural problems calculated using the phase-field method are presented. It is well known that the phase field method requires mesh resolution of a diffuse interface. This makes the use of mesh adaptivity essential especially for fast evolving interfaces and other transient problems. Complex problems in 3D are also computationally challenging so that parallel computations are considered necessary. In this paper, a parallel adaptive finite element scheme is proposed. The scheme keeps the level of node and edge for 2D and level of node and face for 3D instead of the complete history of refinements to facilitate derefinement. The information is local and exchange of information is minimized and also less memory is used. The parallel adaptive algorithms that run on distributed memory machines are implemented in the numerical simulation of dendritic growth and capillary-driven flows.
The grain boundary wetting phase transition in an industrial EZ33A cast alloy is studied. 12% of the grain boundaries are completely wetted at the temperature slightly higher than the eutectic transformation temperature (530°C). The fraction of wetted grain boundaries increases with temperature, reaches a maximum of 85% at 570°C, and does not change further until the alloy melts. In the as-cast state, the alloy has low ductile properties at the ambient temperature. The microstructure in the as-cast state corresponds to the wetting state at about 560°C, which indicates that the cooling rate in casting is almost equal to that in quenching. The volume and the surface fraction of the second phase and the hardness measured at the least wetted state of samples point to its good machinability. The wetting data are used to suggest a sequence of heat treatment and machining for processing EZ33A alloy parts.