In the case of mining machines, tribocorrosion damage is often observed. This type of consumption is caused by the joint action of mining environment factors such as abrasive and water. The search for methods to counteract tribocorrosion is of great practical importance, but it must be combined with the knowledge of methods of forecasting the value of wear. This paper presents a model of prediction of tribocorrosive wear adapted to corrodible materials – ADI containing Ni and Cu, with the strength class of 800 MPa – and results of a two-stage study on the tribocorrosive wear. Presented results indicate a distinct effect of synergy between friction and corrosion in the total wear of ADI. The tribocorrosion tests confimed the adequacy of the model developed for the ADI.
This paper presents the results of the abrasive wear resistance of selected types of nodular cast iron, including ADI, cooperating with quartz sand and 100 grit abrasive paper. It has been shown that carbides in nodular cast iron cause an increase in wear resistance of 6 to 12% depending on the surface fraction of the carbides and type of the matrix. For the same unit pressure the mass loss of the cast iron cooperating with quartz sand is many times larger than the cast iron cooperating with abrasive paper. For both abrasives the highest wear resistance showed nodular cast iron with upper and lower bainite and carbides.
Results of investigations of wear resistant of two species of cast steel were introduced in the article (low-alloyed and chromium cast steel) on the background of the standard material which was low alloy wear resistant steel about the trade name CREUSABRO ®8000. The investigations were executed with two methods: abrasive wears in the stream of loose particles (the stream of quartz sand) and abrasive wears particles fixed (abrasive paper with the silicon carbide). Comparing the results of investigations in the experiments was based about the counted wear index which characterizes the wears of the studied material in the relation to the standard material.
In spite of the fact that in most applications, magnesium alloys are intended for operation in environments with room temperature, these alloys are subject to elevated temperature and oxidizing atmosphere in various stages of preparation (casting, welding, thermal treatment). At present, the studies focus on development of alloys with magnesium matrix, intended for plastic forming. The paper presents results of studies on oxidation rate of WE43 and ZRE1 magnesium foundry alloys in dry and humidified atmosphere of N2+1%O2. Measurements of the oxidation rate were carried out using a Setaram thermobalance in the temperature range of 350-480°C. Corrosion products were analyzed by SEM-SEI, BSE and EDS. It was found that the oxide layer on the WE43 alloy has a very good resistance to oxidation. The high protective properties of the layer should be attributed to the presence of yttrium in this alloy. On the other hand, a porous, two-layer scale with a low adhesion to the substrate forms on the ZRE1 alloy. The increase in the sample mass in dry gas is lower than that in humidified gas.
The use of surface analysis to investigate brake elements shows how a pair in contact works and wears out during regular operation. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the asperities from initial state to a moment when further use of the drum and shoe is not possible. Between exchange of vital brake elements a truck with total mass exceeding 3.5 tons can cover as many as 300 000 kilometres. Use of brakes during the first 1000 kilometres after maintenance should be rather gentle with possibly intensive use of engine brake installed in the truck itself, because if this rule is not adhered to it may lead to a significant decrease of the braking force and on the surface of the pair in contact a layer will appear that is not possible to wear off and that will make it impossible to stop a truck using brakes. In that condition the shoe should be immediately replaced and the drum should be remachined (by turning) to a repair dimension. In the paper the condition and analysis of a surface after different course of exploitation was presented.
The welding technologies are widely used for design of protection layer against wear and corrosion. Hardfacing, which is destined for obtaining coatings with high hardness, takes special place in these technologies. One of the most effective way of hardfacing is using self shielded flux cored arc welding (FCAW-S). Chemical composition obtained in flux cored wire is much more rich in comparison to this obtained in solid wire. The filling in flux cored wires can be enriched for example with the mixture of hard particles or phases with specified ratio, which is not possible for solid wires. This is the reason why flux cored wires give various possibilities of application of this kind of filler material for improving surface in mining industry, processing of minerals, energetic etc. In the present paper the high chromium and niobium flux cored wire was used for hardfacing process with similar heat input. The work presents studies of microstructures of obtained coatings and hardness and geometric properties of them. The structural studies were made with using optical microscopy and X- ray diffraction that allowed for identification of carbides and other phases obtained in the structures of deposited materials. Investigated samples exhibit differences in coating structures made with the same heat input 4,08 kJ/mm. There are differences in size, shape and distribution of primary and eutectic carbides in structure. These differences cause significant changes in hardness of investigated coatings.
The main reason of a cavitational destruction is the mechanical action of cavitation pulses onto the material’s surface. The course of cavitation destruction process is very complex and depends on the physicochemical and structural features of a material. A resistance to cavitation destruction of the material increases with the increase of its mechanical strength, fatigue resistance as well as hardness. Nevertheless, the effect of structural features on the material’s cavitational resistance has been not fully clarified. In the present paper, the cavitation destruction of ZnAl4 as cast alloy was investigated on three laboratory stands: vibration, jet-impact and flow stands. The destruction mechanism of ZnAl4 as cast alloy subjected to cavitational erosion using various laboratory stands is shown in the present paper.
The paper discusses the results of investigations of material, tribological and anti-corrosion properties of hybrid coatings of the Cr/CrN type, consisting of chromium and chromium nitride, formed on the surface of alloy tool steel by the Arc-PVD method. Investigations of the morphology and microstructure of hybrid coatings, as well as of their phase composition were carried out. The studies on mechanical properties included tests on hardness and Young’s modulus using the nanoindentation method. Tests on adhesion were conducted using the scratch-test method. Tribological properties of the obtained coatings were evaluated by the pin-on-disc method. Resistance to corrosion was determined by electrochemical methods. It was shown that hybrid coatings of the Cr/CrN type are characterized by good adhesion to the substrate and very good tribological properties, as well as by very good resistance to corrosion in a solution containing chlorine ions.
This study manufactured a SiC coating layer using the vacuum kinetic spray process and investigated its microstructure and wear properties. SiC powder feedstock with a angular shape and average particle size of 37.4 μm was used to manufacture an SiC coating layer at room temperature in two different process conditions (with different degrees of vacuum). The thickness of the manufactured coating layers were approximately 82.4 μm and 129.4 μm, forming a very thick coating layers. The SiC coating layers consisted of α-SiC and β-SiC phases, which are identical to the feedstock. Cross-sectional observation confirmed that the SiC coating layer formed a dense structure. In order to investigate the wear properties, ball crater tests were performed. The wear test results confirmed that the SiC coating layer with the best wear resistance achieved approximately 4.16 times greater wear resistance compared to the Zr alloy. This study observed the wear surface of the vacuum kinetic sprayed SiC coating layer and identified its wear mechanism. In addition, the potential applications of the SiC coating layer manufactured using the new process were also discussed.
The current work presents the research results of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing and liquid friction of new austenitic, austenitic-ferritic (“duplex”) cast steel and gray cast iron EN-GJL-250, spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3, pearlitic with ledeburitic carbides and spheroidal graphite iron with ledeburitic carbides with a microstructure of the metal matrix: pearlitic, upper bainite, mixture of upper and lower bainite, martensitic with austenite, pearlitic-martensitic-bainitic-ausferritic obtained in the raw state. The wearing quality test was carried out on a specially designed and made bench. Resistance to abrasion wear was tested using sand paper P40. Resistance to adhesive wear was tested in interaction with steel C55 normalized, hardened and sulfonitrided. The liquid friction was obtained using CASTROL oil. It was stated that austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a similar value of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing friction. The smallest decrease in mass was shown by the cast steel in interaction with the sulfonitrided steel C55. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex” in different combinations of friction pairs have a higher wear quality than gray cast iron EN-GJL250 and spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a lower wearing quality than the spheroidal graphite iron with bainitic-martensitic microstructure. In the adhesive wear test using CASTROL oil the tested cast steels and cast irons showed a small mass decrease within the range of 1÷2 mg.
In order for the working status of the aluminum alloyed hydraulic valve body to be controlled in actual conditions, a new friction and wear design device was designed for the cast iron and aluminum alloyed valve bodies comparison under the same conditions. The results displayed that: (1) The oil leakage of the aluminum alloyed hydraulic valve body was higher than the corresponding oil leakage of the iron body during the initial running stage. Besides during a later running stage, the oil leakage of the aluminum alloyed body was lower than corresponding oil leakage of the iron body; (2) The actual oil leakage of different materials consisted of two parts: the foundation leakage that was the leakage of the valve without wear and wear leakage that was caused by the worn valve body; (3) The aluminum alloyed valve could rely on the dust filling furrow and melting mechanism that led the body surface to retain dynamic balance, resulting in the valve leakage preservation at a low level. The aluminum alloy modified valve body can meet the requirements of hydraulic leakage under pressure, possibly constituting this alloy suitable for hydraulic valve body manufacturing.
The paper deals with susceptibility of nodular cast iron with ferritic -pearlitic matrix on cavitation erosion . Cavitation tests were carried out with the use of a cavitation erosion vibratory apparatus employing a vibration exciter operated at frequency of 20 kHz. The study allowed to determine the sequence of subsequent stages in which microstr ucture of cast iron in superficial regions is subject to degradation. The first features to be damaged are graphite precipitates. The ferritic matrix of the alloy turned out to be definitely less resistant to cavitation erosion compared to the pearlitic matrix component.
Among the copper based alloys, Cu-Al-X bronzes are commonly used as mold materials due to their superior physical and chemical properties. Mold materials suffer from both wear and corrosion, thus, it is necessary to know which one of the competitive phenomenon is dominant during the service conditions. In this study, tribo-corrosion behavior of CuAl10Ni5Fe4 and CuAl14Fe4Mn2Co alloys were studied and electrochemical measurements were carried out using three electrode system in 3.5 % NaCl solution in order to evaluate their corrosion resistance. In tribo-corrosion tests, alloys were tested against zirconia ball in 3.5 % NaCl solution, under 10N load with 0.04 m/s sliding speed during 300 and 600 m. The results indicate that (i) CuAl10Ni5Fe4 alloy is more resistant to NaCl solution compared to CuAl14Fe4Mn2Co alloy that has major galvanic cells within its matrix, (ii) although CuAl10Ni5Fe4 alloy has lower coefficient of friction value, it suffers from wear under dry sliding conditions, (iii) as the sliding distance increases, corrosion products on CuAl14Fe4Mn2Co surface increase at a higher rate compared to CuAl10Ni5Fe4 leading to a decrease in volume loss due to the lubricant effect of copper oxides.
The tribological behavior of the PVD-TiAlN coated carbide inserts in dry sliding against two-phase (α-β) titanium alloy,Ti6Al4V grade, was investigated. A modified pin-on-disc device was used to conduct experiments under variable normal load and sliding speed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray micro-analyses by EDS were applied for observations of wear scars and wear products. It was revealed that the increase of sliding speed contributes to decreasing the friction coefficient under a low normal force, whereas the increase of the normal loading causes the friction coefficient is less sensitive to changes in the sliding speed and its values are equal to μ = 0.26-0.34. The adhesive nature of wear along with severe abrasive action of the Ti alloy were documented.
Paper presents the results of studies on primary crystallization and wear resistance of high chromium cast iron inoculated with ferrotitanium intended for work in abrasive conditions. Primary crystallization was examined with use of TDA method, wear tests of the samples were conducted using the modified pin-on-disk method.
The article shows results of studies of primary crystallization and wear resistance of Cr-Ni-Mo cast steel intended for work in corrosive and abrasive conditions. The studies of primary crystallization were conducted with use of TDA method and modified tester allowing measurement casting cooling time influence on the cooling and crystallization curves of studied alloys. After heat treatment of examined cast steel wear tests of the samples were conducted on pin-on-disc type device.
The paper presents the capabilities of welding techniques to creating properties of wear resistant high chromium cast iron alloy. The use of the right kind of welding sequence allows you to change the structure and properties of the obtained welds. Tests were conducted for one type of additive material in the form of self shielded core wire. In order to determine the effect of the type of welding sequence on the properties of welds performed welding using string bead and weave bead. The resulting weld was tested on hardness and research structure in an optical microscope. In the following studies have been made erosive tests wear of made hardfacing. String beads gave structure rich in carbides and harder about 270 HV of the weld with weave bead. Also, wear resistance was nearly twice as better for welds made with string beads. In the experiment a decisive role in the resistance to wear plays a high hardness of the deposit and the presence of carbides in its structure. Changes in the basic parameters of the deposition process allows for the formation of structure and properties of hardfacing welds in a wide range.
The considerations presented in this paper include a computer analysis of slide bearing wear prognosis using the solutions of recurrence equations complemented with the experimental data values. On the ground of the results obtained from analytical and computational numerical calculations, and taking into account the experimental parameters of bearing material and operation boundary conditions, the control problems of slide bearing wear surfaces have been presented. The obtained results allow us to see a connection between roughness, material properties, the amplitude of vibrations, the kind of the friction forces, the hardness of materials, the sliding speed in one side and the wear increments in succeeding time units of the exploitation process in other side.
Aluminium based metal matrix composite (Al-MMC’s) are much popular in the field like automobile and aerospace industries, because of its ease of fabrication process and excellent mechanical properties. In this study, Al-Zn-Mg alloy composite reinforced with 3, 6 and 9 v % of zircon sand was synthesised by stir casting technique. The microstructure of the composites revealed uniform distribution of reinforced particles. Hardness, tensile strength and wear resistance of Al-Zn-Mg alloy/zircon sand composite were found to increase with increase in v % percentage of zircon sand. Scanning Electron Microscope analysis of wear tested sample surface of composites revealed no evidence of plastic deformation of matrix phase. Particle pulls out and abrasive wear was the common feature observed from all the composites.
The paper deals with hypereutectic high chromium cast irons. The subject of examination was the effect of various alloying elements (Ti, W, Mo, V) on the size of primary carbides and on the resultant material hardness. Using a scanning electron microscope with a wave dispersion analyser, the carbon content in carbides was established. To determine the other elements, an energy dispersion analyser was used. It was found that both the primary and the eutectic carbides were of the M7C3 type and very similar in composition. The carbides always contained Cr and Fe, and also W, Mo, V or Ti, in dependence on the alloying elements used. The structure of materials containing only chromium without any alloying additions exhibited coarse acicular primary carbides. The structure of materials alloyed with another element was always finer. Marked refinement was obtained by Ti alloying.
The friction and wear properties of 201HT aluminum alloys and the corresponding competitive coupons were tested on an electrohydraulic servo face friction and wear testing machine (MM-U10G). The microstructures of the competitive coupons were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and consequently the corresponding friction and wear mechanisms were studied. The results demonstrated that: (1) the best competitive material of friction and wear performance of the 201HT was the 201HTC. (2) the 201HTC modified by carbon following the initial mill for oil storage of the micro-groove to be produced, increased the corresponding lubrication performance reduced the friction coefficient and wear rate effectively. (3) the 201HT-201HTC could obtain both better friction and wear mainly due to the initial process of grinding following the 201HT plastic deformation occurred in the surface and the formation of a series of re-melting welding points, whereas the 201HT material hardness would be similar to the 201HTC material hardness, which led into the competitive material friction and wear performance improvement.