Thermodynamic descriptions of the ternary Fe-B-Si system and its binary sub-system, B-Si, are developed in the context of a new Fe-B-X (X = Cr, Ni, Mn, V, Si, Ti, C) database. The thermodynamic parameters of the other binary sub-systems, Fe-Si and Fe-B, are taken from earlier assessments. Experimental thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data available in the literature has been used for the optimization of the thermodynamic parameters of the Fe-B-Si and B-Si systems. The solution phases are described using substitutional solution model and the compounds (silicides and borides) are treated as stoichiometric phases. The calculated and experimental thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data were found to be in good agreement.
Thermodynamic optimizations of the ternary Fe-B-Ti system and its binary sub-system, B-Ti are presented. The thermodynamic descriptions of the other binaries, Fe-Ti and Fe-B, are taken from the earlier studies slightly modifying the Fe-Ti system assessment. The adjustable parameters of the Fe-B-Ti and B-Ti systems are optimized in this study using the experimental thermodynamic and the phase equilibrium data from the literature. The solution phases of the system are described using the substitutional solution model and the compounds (including borides) are treated as stoichiometric phases. The results show a good correlation between the calculated and measured thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data.
The new efficient method of modeling and thermodynamic analysis of power engineering systems has been presented. With its help a comparison of different structures and investigation of the influence of a particular constituent process onto the whole system efficiency is possible. The shaft work or the exergy is the main thermodynamic quantity taken into account in analyses, and the appropriate dimensionless modeling parameter has been introduced.
Most satellites stationed in space use catalytic propulsion systems for attitude control and orbit adjustment. Hydrazine is consumed extensively as liquid monopropellant, in the thrusters. Catalytic reactor is the most important section in the catalytic thruster. Ammonia and nitrogen gases are produced as a result of complete catalytic decomposition of hydrazine in the reactor, causing an increase in temperature and a rise in specific impulse. Ammonia is subsequently decomposed, leading to nitrogen and hydrogen gases. Decomposition of ammonia leads to a decrease in temperature, molecular weight and specific impulse. The latter phenomenon is unavoidable. The effect of ammonia decomposition on the reactor temperature, molecular weight of gaseous products and conclusively on specific impulse was studied in this article. At adiabatic state, thermodynamic analysis revealed that the maximum and minimum temperatures were 1655 K and 773 K, respectively. The highest molecular weight was obtained at ammonia conversion of zero and the lowest when ammonia conversion was 100%. The maximum specific impulse (305.4 S) was obtained at ammonia conversion of zero and completely conversion of ammonia, the minimum specific impulse (about 213.7 s) was obtained. For specific impulse, the result of thermodynamic calculation in this work was validated by the empirical results.
This paper presents the results of thermodynamic analysis of the crude distillation units of two refineries in Nigeria. The analysis was intended to assess the thermodynamic efficiencies of the refineries and proffer methods of improving the efficiencies. Presented results show the atmospheric distillation units of the refineries have 33.3% and 31.6% exergetic efficiencies and 86.5% and 74.6% energetic efficiencies, respectively. Modifications of the operating and feed conditions of the refineries resulted in increased exergetic efficiencies for as much as 62.3% and 38.7% for the refineries. Thermodynamic analysis of the refineries can bring about efficiency improvement and effectiveness of the refineries.
The study investigates chemical modifications of coal fly ash (FA) treated with HCl or NH4HCO3 or NaOH or Na2edta, based on the research conducted to examine the behaviour of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions adsorbed from water solution on treated fly ash. In laboratory tests, the equilibrium and kinetics were examined applying various temperatures (293 - 333 K) and pH (2 - 11) values. The maximum Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions adsorption capacity obtained at 293 K, pH 9 and mixing time 2 h from the Langmuir model can be grouped in the following order: FA-NaOH > FA-NH4HCO3 > FA > FA-Na2edta > FA-HCl. The morphology of fly ash grains was examined via small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and images of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adsorption kinetics data were well fitted by a pseudo-second-order rate model but showed a very poor fit for the pseudofirst order model. The intra-particle model also revealed that there are two separate stages in the sorption process, i.e. the external diffusion and the inter-particle diffusion. Thermodynamics parameters such as free energy, enthalpy and entropy were also determined. A laboratory test demonstrated that the modified coal fly ash worked well for the Cd(II) and Pb(II) ion uptake from polluted waters.
As a kind of mass transfer process as well as the basis of separating and purifying mixtures, interfacial adsorption has been widely applied to fields like chemical industry, medical industry and purification engineering in recent years. Influencing factors of interfacial adsorption, in addition to the traditional temperature, intensity of pressure, amount of substance and concentration, also include external fields, such as magnetic field, electric field and electromagnetic field, etc. Starting from the point of thermodynamics and taking the Gibbs adsorption as the model, the combination of energy axiom and the first law of thermodynamics was applied to boundary phase, and thus the theoretical expression for the volume of interface absorption under electric field as well as the mathematical relationship between surface tension and electric field intensity was obtained. In addition, according to the obtained theoretical expression, the volume of interface absorption of ethanol solution under different electric field intensities and concentrations was calculated. Moreover, the mechanism of interfacial adsorption was described from the perspective of thermodynamics and the influence of electric field on interfacial adsorption was explained reasonably, aiming to further discuss the influence of thermodynamic mechanism of interfacial adsorption on purifying air-conditioning engineering under intensification of electric field.
An equiatomic multi-component alloy Ni20Ti20Ta20Co20Cu20 (at. %) was obtained using vacuum arc melting. In order to characterize such an alloy, microstructure analysis has been performed using Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Backscattered Diffraction, X-ray Diffraction and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy techniques. Microstructure analysis revealed the presence of one rhombohedral and two cubic phases. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy measurements revealed that both observed phases include five chemical elements in the structure. Using Rietveld refinement approach the lattice parameters were refined for the observed phases.
Indirectly or externally fired gas turbines (IFGT or EFGT) are interesting technologies under development for small and medium scale combined heat and power (CHP) supplies in combination with micro gas turbine technologies. The emphasis is primarily on the utilization of the waste heat from the turbine in a recuperative process and the possibility of burning biomass even "dirty" fuel by employing a high temperature heat exchanger (HTHE) to avoid the combustion gases passing through the turbine. In this paper, finite time thermodynamics is employed in the performance analysis of a class of irreversible closed IFGT cycles coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs. Based on the derived analytical formulae for the dimensionless power output and efficiency, the efficiency optimization is performed in two aspects. The first is to search the optimum heat conductance distribution corresponding to the efficiency optimization among the hot- and cold-side of the heat reservoirs and the high temperature heat exchangers for a fixed total heat exchanger inventory. The second is to search the optimum thermal capacitance rate matching corresponding to the maximum efficiency between the working fluid and the high-temperature heat reservoir for a fixed ratio of the thermal capacitance rates of the two heat reservoirs. The influences of some design parameters on the optimum heat conductance distribution, the optimum thermal capacitance rate matching and the maximum power output, which include the inlet temperature ratio of the two heat reservoirs, the efficiencies of the compressor and the gas turbine, and the total pressure recovery coefficient, are provided by numerical examples. The power plant configuration under optimized operation condition leads to a smaller size, including the compressor, turbine, two heat reservoirs and the HTHE.
Heat transfer is an irreversible process. This article defines the entropy increment as a measure of energy degradation in heat transfer realized in typical surface heat exchangers. As an example of the proposed entropy increase method, presented below are the calculations for heat exchangers working in a typical Clausius-Rankine cycle. The entropy increase in such exchangers inevitably leads to increased fuel consumption and, as a further consequence, to increased carbon dioxide emission.