The paper presents a detailed analysis of the material damaging process due to lowcycle fatigue and subsequent crack growth under thermal shocks and high pressure. Finite Element Method (FEM) model of a high pressure (HP) by-pass valve body and a steam turbine rotor shaft (used in a coal power plant) is presented. The main damaging factor in both cases is fatigue due to cycles of rapid temperature changes. The crack initiation, occurring at a relatively low number of load cycles, depends on alternating or alternating-incremental changes in plastic strains. The crack propagation is determined by the classic fracture mechanics, based on finite element models and the most dangerous case of brittle fracture. This example shows the adaptation of the structure to work in the ultimate conditions of high pressure, thermal shocks and cracking.
A Stirling cycle was developed by Rallis considering the adiabatic behaviour instead of isothermal behaviour of working fluid inside the expansion/compression volume, since the isothermal processes are very difficult to be realised in actual practice due to irreversibilities. In order to increase the performance of Rallis Stirling cycle engine, two modified versions of Rallis Stirling cycle engine model have been proposed and developed, called as Rallis modified Stirling cycle engine (RMSE). In this paper, the thermodynamic analysis of the developed models have been carried out and the simulated results are compared with the Rallis ideal model of Stirling cycle engine, as this model describes more accurately the thermodynamic cycle of practical Stirling machines. The results reveal the fact that the thermal efficiency of RMSE I model is enhanced by 38.06% and that of RMSE II model by 48.42%, whereas the power output is increased by 58.05% and 78.19% in case of RMSE I and RMSE II model respectively, when compared with the Rallis ideal adiabatic model of Stirling engine.
The paper presents an efficiency analysis of two transcritical CO2 power cycles with regenerative heaters. For the proposed cycles, calculations of thermal efficiency are given for selected values of operating parameters. It was assumed that the highest working temperature and pressure are in the range from 600 to 700 °C and 40 to 50 MPa, respectively. The purpose of the calculations was optimization of the pressure and mass flows in the regenerative heaters to achieve maximum cycle efficiency. It follows that for the assumed upper CO2 parameters, efficiency of 51-54% can be reached, which is comparable to the efficiency of a supercritical advanced power cycle considered by Dostal.
The paper presents a thermodynamic optimization of 900MW power unit for ultra-supercritical parameters, modified according to AD700 concept. The aim of the study was to verify two optimisation methods, i.e., the finding the minimum of a constrained nonlinear multivariable function (fmincon) and the Nelder-Mead method with their own constrain functions. The analysis was carried out using IPSEpro software combined with MATLAB, where gross power generation efficiency was chosen as the objective function. In comparison with the Nelder-Mead method it was shown that using fmincon function gives reasonable results and a significant reduction of computational time. Unfortunately, with the increased number of decision parameters, the benefit measured by the increase in efficiency is becoming smaller. An important drawback of fmincon method is also a lack of repeatability by using different starting points. The obtained results led to the conclusion, that the Nelder-Mead method is a better tool for optimisation of thermal cycles with a high degree of complexity like the coal-fired power unit.