This article proposes to use abrasive waterjet cutting (AWJ) for deflashing, deburring and similar finishing operations in casting. The basic requirements concerning the dimensional accuracy and surface texture of cast components are not met if visible surface flaws are detected. The experiments focused on the removal of external flash from elements made of EN-GJL-150 cast iron. The method employed for finishing was abrasive waterjet cutting. The tests were carried out using an APW 2010BB waterjet cutting machine. The form profiles before and after flash removal were determined with a Taylor Hobson PGI 1200 contact profiler. A Nikon AZ100 optical microscope was applied to observe and measure the changes in the flash height and width. The casting surface after finishing was smooth, without characteristic sharp, rough edges that occur in the cutting of objects with a considerable thickness. It should be emphasized that this method does not replace precise cutting operations. Yet, it can be successfully used to finish castings for which lower surface quality is required. An undoubted advantage of waterjet cutting is no effect of high temperature as is the case with plasma, laser or conventional cutting. This process is also easy to automate; one tool is needed to perform different finishing operations in order to obtain the desired dimensions, both internal and external.
Ablation casting is a technological process in which the increased cooling rate causes microstructure refinement, resulting in improved mechanical properties of the final product. This technology is particularly suitable for the manufacture of castings with intricate shapes and thin walls. Currently, the ablation casting process is not used in the Polish industry. This article presents the results of strength tests carried out on moulding sands based on hydrated sodium silicate hardened in the Floster S technology, intended for ablation casting of the AlSi7Mg (AK7) aluminium alloy. When testing the bending and tensile strengths of sands, parameters such as binder and hardener content were taken into account. The sand mixtures were tested after 24h hardening at room temperature. The next stage of the study describes the course of the ablation casting process, starting with the manufacture of foundry mould from the selected moulding mixture and ending in tests carried out on the ready casting to check the surface quality, structure and mechanical properties. The results were compared with the parallel results obtained on a casting gravity poured into the sand mould and solidifying in a traditional way at ambient temperature.
This paper concerns the issues of measurement techniques, analysis and assessment of the machined surface geometric structure. The aim of this work was to show the application of surface analysis in diagnosing the causes of discrepancies occurring in the manufacturing process, which may result from ill-matched (poorly fitting) process parameters. An appropriate system of control and interpretation of results may allow early reaction to unfavorable trends (for example blunting of the tool) and prevention of undesirable defects. The subject of research was a waste basket used in the construction of retaining sewer systems. In this paper, the quality of the waste basket as well as its manufacturing process were analyzed and assessed. The research was carried out with the use of three measurement stands, i.e. optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometer (WLI). The surface analysis proved to be important from the viewpoint of outlining the production process as well as improving the product quality. The software used for topographical analysis appeared to be significant for the success of the analysis, providing notable economic effects, namely the lack of defects.
The paper presents the production problems related to casting using precision casting methods. The essential adverse effect of the casting process is the presence of burrs understood as oversize material necessary to remove the next finishing operations. In addition, the surfaces of the cast often characterized by a porous structure. One of the methods to improve the smoothness of the area proposed by the authors is the use of vibro-abrasive finishing. This type of treatment is widely used in the treatment of finishing small objects as well as complex shapes. Objects in the form of casting in the first step was treated with aggressive deburring polyester matrix abrasive media. The second stage was polishing, with using smoothing porcelain media. The study evaluated the effect of vibro-abrasive machining typical cast on the basic parameters of the geometric structure of the surface. Observations using optical microscope Nicon Eclipse MA 200 compared changes in surface microstructure and the effect of deburring. Clearly we can say that vibro-abrasive machining an effective way of reducing the size of burrs, smoothing and lightening the surface of objects made by casting.
This study illustrates the benefits of statistical techniques to analyze spatial and temporal variations in water quality. In this scope water quality differentiation caused by anthropogenic and natural factors in the Tahtali and Balçova reservoirs in western Turkey was investigated using discriminant analysis-DA, Mann Whitney U techniques. Effectiveness of pollution prevention measures was analyzed by Mann Kendall and Sen’s Slope estimator methods. The water quality variables were divided into three groups as physical-inorganic, organic and inorganic pollution parameters for the study. Results showed that water quality between reservoirs was differentiated for “physical-inorganic” and “organic pollution” parameters. Degree of influence of water quality by urbanization was higher in the Tahtali reservoir and in general, no trend detection at pollution indicators explained by effective management practices at both sites.