This article proposes to use abrasive waterjet cutting (AWJ) for deflashing, deburring and similar finishing operations in casting. The basic requirements concerning the dimensional accuracy and surface texture of cast components are not met if visible surface flaws are detected. The experiments focused on the removal of external flash from elements made of EN-GJL-150 cast iron. The method employed for finishing was abrasive waterjet cutting. The tests were carried out using an APW 2010BB waterjet cutting machine. The form profiles before and after flash removal were determined with a Taylor Hobson PGI 1200 contact profiler. A Nikon AZ100 optical microscope was applied to observe and measure the changes in the flash height and width. The casting surface after finishing was smooth, without characteristic sharp, rough edges that occur in the cutting of objects with a considerable thickness. It should be emphasized that this method does not replace precise cutting operations. Yet, it can be successfully used to finish castings for which lower surface quality is required. An undoubted advantage of waterjet cutting is no effect of high temperature as is the case with plasma, laser or conventional cutting. This process is also easy to automate; one tool is needed to perform different finishing operations in order to obtain the desired dimensions, both internal and external.
In sand moulds, at a distance of 3 mm from the metal- mould interface, the sensors of temperature, and of oxygen and hydrogen content were installed. Temperature and the evolution of partial gas pressure have been analysed in moulds bonded with bentonite with or without the addition of seacoal, water glass or furan resin. Moulds were poured with ductile iron. For comparison, also tests with the grey iron have been executed. It was found that the gas atmosphere near the interface depends mainly on the content of a carbonaceous substance in the mould. In the green sand moulds with 5% of seacoal or bonded with furan resin, after the mould filling, a sudden increase in the hydrogen content and the drop of oxygen is observed. This gas evolution results from the oxidation of carbon and reduction of water vapour in the mould material, and also from the reduction of water vapour and alloy reoxidation. In carbon-free sand, the evolution in the gas composition is slower because water vapour is reduced only at the interface. Changes of oxygen and hydrogen content in the controlled zone are determined by the transport phenomena.