A method of manufacturing hydrogel coatings designed to increase the hydrophilicity of polyurethanes (PU) is presented. Coatings were obtained from polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by free radical polymerisation. The authors proposed a mechanism of a two-step grafting - crosslinking process and investigated the influence of reagent concentration on the coating’s physical properties - hydrogel ratio (HG) and equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR). A surface analysis of freeze-dried coatings using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a highly porous structure. The presented technology can be used to produce biocompatible surfaces with limited protein and cell adhesive properties and can be applied in fabrication of number of biomedical devices, e.g. catheters, vascular grafts and heart prosthesis.
The influence of ion implantation on the structure and properties of polymers is a very complex issue. Many physical and chemical processes taking place during ion bombardment must be taken into consideration. The complexity of the process may exert both positive and negative influence on the structure of the material. The goal of this paper is to investigate the influence of H+, He+ and Ar+ ion implantation on the properties of polypropylene membranes used in filtration processes and in consequence on fouling phenomena. It has appeared that the ion bombardment caused the chemical modification of membranes which has led to decrease of hydrophobicity. The increase of protein adsorption on membrane surface has also been observed.
The modified surface layers of Mg enriched with Al and Si were fabricated by thermochemical treatment. The substrate material in contact with an Al + 20 wt.% Si powder mixture was heated to 445ºC for 40 or 60 min. The microstructure of the layers was examined by OM and SEM. The chemical composition of the layer and the distribution of elements were determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The experimental results show that the thickness of the layer is dependent on the heating time. A much thicker layer (1 mm) was obtained when the heating time was 60 min than when it was 40 min (600 μm). Both layers had a non-homogeneous structure. In the area closest to the Mg substrate, a thin zone of a solid solution of Al in Mg was detected. It was followed by a eutectic with Mg17Al12and a solid solution of Al in Mg. The next zone was a eutectic with agglomerates of Mg2Si phase particles; this three-phase structure was the thickest. Finally, the area closest to the surface was characterized by dendrites of the Mg17Al12phase. The microhardness of the modified layer increased to 121-236 HV as compared with 33-35 HV reported for the Mg substrate.
In current casting technology of cored, thin walled castings, the modifying coating is applied on the surface of wax pattern and, after the removal of the wax, is transferred to inner mould surface. This way the modification leading to grain refinement occur on the surface of the casting. In thin walled castings the modification effect can also be seen on the other (external) side of the casting. Proper reproduction of details in thin walled castings require high pouring temperature which intensify the chemical reactions on the mould – molten metal interface. This may lead to degradation of the surface of the castings. The core modification process is thought to circumvent this problem. The modifying coating is applied to the surface of the core. The degradation of internal surface of the casting is less relevant. The most important factor in this technology is “trough” modification – obtaining fine grained structure on the surface opposite to the surface reproduced by the core.
Paper presents the results of research on modified surface grain refinement method used in investment casting of hollow, thin-walled parts made of nickel based superalloys. In the current technology, the refining inoculant is applied to the surface of the wax pattern and then, it is transferred to the ceramic mould surface during dewaxing. Because of its chemical activity the inoculant may react with the liquid metal which can cause defects on the external surface of the cast part. The method proposed in the paper aims to reduce the risk of external surface defects by applying the grain refiner only to the ceramic core which shapes the internal surface of the hollow casting. In case of thin-walled parts the grain refinement effect is visible throughout the thickness of the walls. The method is meant to be used when internal surface finish is less important, like for example, aircraft engine turbine blades, where the hollowing of the cast is mainly used to lower the weight and aid in cooling during operation.
The paper presents the results concerning impact of modification (volume and surface techniques), pouring temperature and mould temperature on stereological parameters of macrostructure in IN713C castings made using post-production scrap. The ability to adjust the grain size is one of the main issues in the manufacturing of different nickel superalloy castings used in aircraft engines. By increasing the grain size one can increase the mechanical properties, like diffusion creep resistance, in higher temperatures. The fine grained castings. on the other hand, have higher mechanical properties in lower temperatures and higher resistance to thermal fatigue. The test moulds used in this study, supplied by Pratt and Whitney Rzeszow, are ordinarily used to cast the samples for tensile stress testing. Volume modification was carried out using the patented filter containing cobalt aluminate. The macrostructure was described using the number of grains per mm2 , mean grain surface area and shape index. Obtained results show strong relationship between the modification technique, pouring temperature and grain size. There was no significant impact of mould temperature on macrostructure.