Steel and cast-iron products, due to their low price and beneficial properties, are the most widely used among metals; their consumption has become an indicator of the economic development of countries. The characteristics of iron raw materials, in relation to current metallurgical requirements, are presented in the present this article. The globalization of the trade and development of steelmaking technologies have caused significant changes in the quality of raw materials in the last half-century forcing improvements in processing technologies. In many countries, standard concentrates (at least 60% Fe) are almost twice as rich as those processed in the mid-20th century. Methods of quality assessment have been improved and quality standards tightened. The quality requirements for the most important raw materials ‒ iron ores and concentrates, steel scrap, major alloy metals, coking coal, and coke, as well as gas and other energy media ‒ are reviewed in the present paper. Particular attention is paid to the quality testing methodology. The quality of many raw materials is evaluated multi-parametrically: both chemical and physical characteristics are important. Lower-quality parameters in raw materials equate to significantly lower prices obtained by suppliers in the market. The markets for these raw materials are diversified and governed by separate sets of newly introduced rules. Price benchmarks (e.g. for standard Australian metallurgical coal) or indices (for iron concentrates) apply. Some raw materials are quoted within the framework of the commodity market system (certain alloying components and steel scrap). The abandonment of the long-established system of multi-annual contracts has led to wide fluctuations in prices, which have reached a scale similar to that of other metals.
The ways of the improvement of the method for the determination of steel losses in the electrical devices of basic types are substantiated. The method is refined by taking into account the magnetic system properties at high saturation. The presence of the interrelation between the special features of the domain structure movement and the shape of the hysteresis loop is proved for laminated cores. It enabled the explanation of the causes for the abnormally high values of the losses in the steel and the atypical shapes of the hysteresis loops at its high saturation. The empiric dependence for the determination of steel losses is obtained. It provides for the high convergence of the calculated and experimental data at the actual degree of saturation and can be used in the direct-current operation of the analyzed devices.
An attempt to summarize the primary iron raw materials and steel market’s hundred years history as well as influence of economic indicators on the iron ore deposit qualification for extraction has been undertaken in the paper. Steel products are crucial to the world economy, and their production has a major impact on the environment. The main factor is the huge scale of the production and growth rate, unprecedented among minerals. Iron ore and concentrates production has increased more than thirty times over the past century, and the geological resource base at the current level of consumption has provided almost 250 years of sufficiency. There have been tremendous changes in the world geography of the ore and steel industry. The iron ore mining industry is the driver of other economic activities (land transport, freight, metallurgy) and involves huge capital and human resources. The consumption of iron raw materials is also considered as an important indicator of the countries development and current or even future economic situation. Population growth remains one of the key stimulating factors. The prices of ore and iron concentrates depend on the quality of the raw material, delivery conditions, market balance and the weight of the ordered cargo. They are usually the subject of negotiations. In the past, they were long-term contracts, while short-term (yearly, quarterly) and current spot transactions are now significant. The prices of ores and concentrates in relation to steel prices are showing a strong correlation. The average iron content of the reserves has been reduced in the largest producers in the 21st century, however it does not translate into the quality of mining output. Exploitation of the richer parts of the mineral deposit is usually carried out. The high content of iron in the output is a response to the technological requirements of the metallurgy where the blast furnace charge should contain at least 56% Fe and 5–8% FeO. The current surplus of geological-mining supply (large resource base) justifies that a mineral deposit choice, destined for excavation, is economic profit maximization as well as social and environmental considerations.
Analysis of the use of the Russian materials (liquid glass and softening additives) has been made in accordance with the modern requirements for use in the technological processes of casting as binding materials in the production of large-sized steel railway casting. The reasons for poor knockout of liquid glass mixtures have been investigated. A complex action softening additive has been recommended for a better knocking-out ability. This solution provides a softening effect at the points of maximum formation of the liquid glass matrix strength in the processes of polymorphic transformation of the material under the influence of elevated temperatures as the result of filling the mold cavity by the melt. It has been shown that the use of additives of complex action leads to the decrease in the specific work of the knockout by four – seven times depending on the composition of the mixture and the design features of the casting. Experimental-industrial tests of the proposed method for softening the liquid glass mixtures have been made and the "Front Buffer Stop" casting has been made (for the rolling stock of locomotives and railway wagons). The tests confirmed the effectiveness and expediency of implementation of new liquid glass mixtures with softening additives in conditions of foundry enterprises.
The main purpose of the paper is to present a method which allows taking into account the anisotropic properties of dynamo steel sheets. An additional aim is to briefly present anisotropic properties of these sheets which are caused by occurrences of some textures. In order to take into account textures occurring in dynamo sheets, a certain sheet sample is divided into elementary segments. Two matrix equations, describing changes of the magnetic field, are transformed to one non-linear algebraic equation in which the field strength components are unknown. In this transformation the flux densities assigned to individual elementary segments are replaced by functions of flux densities of easy magnetization axes of all textures occurring in the given dynamo sheet. The procedure presented in the paper allows determining one non-linear matrix equation of the magnetic field distribution; in this equation all textures occurring in a dynamo sheet are included. Information about textures occurring in typical dynamo sheets may be used in various approaches regarding the inclusion of anisotropic properties of these sheets, but above all, the presented method can be helpful in calculations of the magnetic field distribution in anisotropic dynamo sheets.
In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast proces so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part (layer) is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The aim of paper was assessed the quality of the joint between bearing and working part in dependence of pouring temperature and carbon concentration in cast steel. The quality of the joint in bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, structure and microhardness researches.
In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The aim of paper was assessed the quality of the joint between bearing and working part in dependence of pouring temperature and carbon concentration in cast steel. The quality of the joint in bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, structure and microhardness researches.
Results of investigations of wear resistant of two species of cast steel were introduced in the article (low-alloyed and chromium cast steel) on the background of the standard material which was low alloy wear resistant steel about the trade name CREUSABRO ®8000. The investigations were executed with two methods: abrasive wears in the stream of loose particles (the stream of quartz sand) and abrasive wears particles fixed (abrasive paper with the silicon carbide). Comparing the results of investigations in the experiments was based about the counted wear index which characterizes the wears of the studied material in the relation to the standard material.
This research paper shows the influence of a repeated SPD (Severe Plastic Deformation) plastic forming with the DRECE technique (Dual Rolls Equal Channel Extrusion) on hardening of low carbon IF steel. The influence of number of passes through the device on change of mechanical properties, such as tensile strength TS and yield stress YS, of tested steel was tested. The developed method is based on equal channel extrusion with dual rolls and uses a repeated plastic forming to refinement of structure and improve mechanical properties of metal bands [1-2]. For the tested steel the increase of strength properties after the DRECE process was confirmed after the first pass in relation to the initial material. The biggest strain hardening is observed after the fourth pass.
Heavy steel castings deoxidized with aluminium are sometimes brittle intercrystalline failed during their service along primary grain boundaries what is initiated by aluminium nitrides and so called conchoidal fractures are formed. The tendency to forming the conchoidal fractures depends in particular on cooling rate (the casting modulus), aluminium and nitrogen contents in steel. During deoxidation, when manufacturing heavy castings, the elements with high affinity to nitrogen, zirconium or titanium, are added to steel that would decrease nitrogen activity by the bond on stable nitrides. The formation of stable nitrides should reduce the tendency of steel to the formation of conchoidal fractures. Deoxidation was thermodynamically analyzed at presence of the mentioned elements. For particular conditions a probable course of deoxidation was estimated at test castings. The deoxidation course was checked by microanalysis of deoxidation products (inclusions). For service and experimental castings the anticipated composition of inclusions was compared. It has been proved that in heavy castings with high aluminium contents in steel under studied conditions neither the addition of zirconium nor of titanium nor of rare earth metals will prevent the formation of conchoidal fractures.
Weld metal deposit (WMD) was carried out for standard MMA welding process. This welding method is still promising mainly due to the high amount of AF (acicular ferrite) and low amount of MAC (self-tempered martensite, retained austenite, carbide) phases in WMD. That structure corresponds with good impact toughness of welds at low temperature. Separate effect of these elements on the mechanical properties of welds is well known, but the combined effect of these alloy additions has not been analyzed so far. It was decided to check the total influence of nickel with a content between 1% to 3% and molybdenum with content from 0.1% up to 0.5%.
The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion – the intergranular one – occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.
The paper presents the results of investigation into the technological possibility of making light-section castings of GX2CrNiMoN25-6-3 cast steel. For making castings with a wall thickness in the thinnest place as small as below 1 mm, the centrifugal casting technology was employed. The technology under consideration enables items with high surface quality to be obtained, while providing a reduced consumption of the charge materials and, as a result, a reduction in the costs of unit casting production.
NC11 steel, in view of the specificity of its manufacturing process, is characterised with band-like orientation of carbides. Depending on the direction of cutting the material for the inserts out of commercially available steel products, carbide bands can be oriented in parallel or perpendicularly to the direction in which aggregate grains move in the process of pressing stampings. It has been found that in case of scratches made in direction perpendicular to carbide bands, depth of the scratches is less than this observed when scratches are made in direction coinciding with prevailing orientation of carbide precipitates.
The paper presents the results of simulation of alloy layer formation process on the model casting. The first aim of this study was to determine the influence of the location of the heat center on alloy layer’s thickness with the use of computer simulation. The second aim of this study was to predict the thickness of the layer. For changes of technological parameters, the distribution of temperature in the model casting and temperature changes in the characteristic points of the casting were found for established changes of technological parameters. Numerical calculations were performed using programs NovaFlow&Solid. The process of obtaining the alloy layer with good quality and proper thickness depends on: pouring temperature, time of premould hold at the temperature above 1300o C. The obtained results of simulation were loaded to authorial program Preforma 1.1 in order to determine the predicted thickness of the alloy casting
The present work focuses on the modeling and analysis of mechanical properties of structural steel. The effect of major alloying elements namely carbon, manganese and silicon has been investigated on mechanical properties of structural steel. Design of experiments is used to develop linear models for the responses namely Yield strength, Ultimate tensile strength and Elongation. The experiments have been conducted as per the full factorial design where all process variables are set at two levels. The main effect plots showed that the alloying elements Manganese and Silicon have positive contribution on Ultimate tensile strength and Yield strength. However, Carbon and Manganese showed more contribution as compared to Silicon. All three alloying elements are found to have negative contribution towards the response- Elongation. The present work is found to be useful to control the mechanical properties of structural steel by varying the major alloying elements. Minitab software has been used for statistical analysis. The linear regression models have been tested for the statistical adequacy by utilizing ANOVA and statistical significance test. Further, the prediction capability of the developed models is tested with the help of test cases. It is found that all linear regression models are found to be statistically adequate with good prediction capability. The work is useful to foundrymen to choose alloying elements composition to get desirable mechanical properties.
In this paper, an analysis of various factors affecting machined surface texture is presented. The investigation was focused on ball end mill inclination against the work piece (defined by surface inclination angle a. Surface roughness was investigated in a 3D array, and measurements were conducted parallel to the feed motion direction. The analysis of machined surface irregularities as a function of frequency (wavelength A), on the basis of the Power Density Spectrum - PDS was also carried out. This kind of analysis is aimed at valuation of primary factors influencing surface roughness generation as well as its randomness. Subsequently, a surface roughness model including cutter displacements was developed. It was found that plain cutting with ball end mill (surface inclination angle a= 0°) is unfavorable from the point of view of surface roughness, because in cutter’s axis the cutting speed vc ~ 0 m/min. This means that a cutting process does not occur, whereas on the machined surface some characteristics marks can be found. These marks do not appear in case of a* 0°, because the cutting speed vc * 0 on the fill I length of the active cutting edge and as a result, the machined surface texture is more homogenous. Surface roughness parameters determined on the basis of the model including cutter displacements are closer to experimental data for cases with inclination angles a* 0°, in comparison with those determined for plain cutting (a= 0°). It is probably caused by higher contribution in surface irregularities generation of plastic and elastic deformations cumulated near the cutter’s free end than kinematic and geometric parameters, as well as cutter displacements.
Many wire products (e.g. nets) are made from galvanized material. The hot dip galvanizing process gives the possibility of applying in a respectively thick coat of zinc (also depending on the time of staying wires in the bath) which provides the protection of the product against corrosion. In the available literature there were no research concerned with the influence of hot dip galvanizing process on the mechanical properties TRIP structure steel wires. Therefore, an experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions allowing the determination of the influence of hot dip galvanizing process parameters on the mechanical properties (tensile strength UST and yield strength YS) of TRIP steel wires as well as on the amount of retained austenite in their structure. It has been stated that the hot galvanizing process of TRIP steel wires influences, proportionally to the time of staying wires in zinc bath, on their plastic properties (the increase in yield strength YS) as well as the decrease in the amount of retained austenite in their structure. Such a phenomenon can be caused by stresses responsible for rapid heating of the wire put in the zinc bath in temperature of 450°C and by the strengthening of the materials resulting from the transformation of retained austenite.
Structure, and thus the mechanical properties of steel are primarily a function of chemical composition and the solidification process which can be influenced by the application of the inoculation treatment. This effect depends on the modifier used. The article presents the results of studies designed to assess the effects of structural low alloy steel inoculation by selected modifying additives. The study was performed on nine casts modeled with different inoculants, assessment of the procedure impact was based on the macrostructure of made castings. The ratio of surface area equivalent to the axial zone of the crystals and columnar crystals zone was adopted as a measure of the inoculation effect.
The aim of the study was to analyse mechanical properties and microstructure of joints obtained using friction stir welding (FSW) technology. The focus of the study was on overlap linear FSW joints made of 1.4541 DIN 17441 steel sheets with thickness of 1.2 mm. Tools used during friction stir welding of steel joints were made of W-Re alloy. The joints were subjected to visual inspection and their load bearing capacity was evaluated by means of the tensile strength test with analysis of joint breaking mechanism. Furthermore, the joints were also tested during metallographic examinations. The analysis performed in the study revealed that all the samples of the FSW joints were broken outside the joint area in the base material of the upper sheet metal, which confirms its high tensile strength. Mean load capacity of the joints was 15.8 kN. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the joints did not reveal significant defects on the joint surface and in the cross-sections.
To figure out the reason causing ladle nozzle clogging during CC (continuous casting) of a non-oriented electrical steel with high silicon (or HNO for short) and get a method to address it, this paper studied the theoretical calculation of flow rates during CC, the inclusions around the slide gate where ladle nozzle clogging happened, and Ca-treatment at the end of RH for decreasing ladle clogging of the electrical steel both theoretically and practically. The results showed that: The bigger diameter of a nozzle or less nozzle clogging can guarantee an enough flow rate for reaching the target casting speed. Ladle nozzle clogging can be predicted by comparing the percentage of slide gate opening. Al2O3 and its composite inclusions were the main reason that caused the ladle nozzle clogging of the electrical steel. Higher [Al] or TO will increase the amount of Pure Ca wires for Ca-treatment. The results of the verification tests fit the thermodynamic calculation, and Ca-treatment using pure Ca wires could prevent ladle nozzles from clogging without affecting the magnetic properties of the electrical steel.
Steel is a versatile material that has found widespread use because of its mechanical properties, its relatively low cost, and the ease with which it can be used in manufacturing process such as forming, welding and machining. Regarding to mechanical properties are strongly affected by grain size and chemical composition variations. Many industrial developments have been carried out both from the point of view of composition variation and grain size in order to exploit the effect of these variables to improve the mechanical proprieties of steels. It is also evident that grain growth are relevant to the mechanical properties of steels, thus suggesting the necessity of mathematical models able to predict the microstructural evolution after thermo cycles. It is therefore of primary importance to study microstructural changes, such as grain size variations of steels during isothermal treatments through the application of a mathematical model, able in general to describe the grain growth in metals. This paper deals with the grain growth modelling of steels based on the statistical theory of grain growth originally developed by Lücke  and here integrated to take into account the Zener drag effect and is therefore focused on the process description for the determination of the kinetics of grain growth curves temperature dependence.
The paper presents achievements in gluing technique in steel and aluminium structures. Adhesives currently in use and available on the market are characterized from the point of view of their mechanical properties. Design rules of adhesive connections and basic methods for their calculations are mentioned. The most significant examples of the applications of those joints in steel as well as aluminium structures are shown.