The paper presents results of a study concerning an AlSi7Mg alloy and the effect of subjecting the liquid metal to four different processes: conventional refining with hexachloroethane; the same refining followed by modification with titanium, boron, and sodium; refining by purging with argon carried out in parallel with modification with titanium and boron salts and strontium; and parallel refining with argon and modification with titanium, boron, and sodium salts. The effect of these four processes on compactness of the material, parameters of microstructure, and fatigue strength of AlSi7Mg alloy after heat treatment. It has been found that the highest compactness (the lowest porosity ratio value) and the most favorable values of the examined parameters of microstructure were demonstrated by the alloy obtained with the use of the process including parallel purging with argon and modification with salts of titanium, boron, and sodium. It has been found that in the fatigue cracking process observed in all the four variants of the liquid metal treatment, the crucial role in initiation of fatigue cracks was played by porosity. Application of the process consisting in refining by purging with argon parallel to modification with Ti, B, and Na salts allowed to refine the microstructure and reduce significantly porosity of the alloy extending thus the time of initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. The ultimate effect consisted in a distinct increase of the fatigue limit value.
This article contains information concerning of the analysis the possibility of defining refinery qualities of the slag based thermo-physical and thermo-dynamical data. It was showed the brass refining with the many-carbide reagents introduced in to the slag. The paper presents the results of the structure analysis of the brass after carbide slag refining in the industrial conditions. The results of the macrostructure analysis have confirmed the argument on high reducing effectiveness of manganese and aluminium carbide used during CuZn39Pb2 alloy melting. The X-Ray microanalysis of the ingot cross-section has shown considerable discrepancies in the disposition of the inclusions. This effects showed on the great influence of reduction melting condition in to the brass melting
It is really hard to determine the phenomena occurring during aluminum refining process using argon blowing through the liquid metal in industrial conditions. The solution of such problem is physical modelling. This kind of modelling gives possibility to determine the level of dispersion of the refining gas in liquid metal. Especially in steel metallurgy RTD (Residence Time Distribution) analysis and visualization process with some colour tracer, which can give extra information about time of mixing are very popularly used. Because the modelling research (especially visualization) is pictorial, the research was conducted to check if it is possible to estimate quantitatively impeller working effectiveness basing on determination of the RTD curves. The examined object was model of URO-200 batch refining reactor. The RTD curves was registered and discussed for three different impellers and four different variants of processing parameters (rotary impeller speed: 300-500 rpm, and gas flow rate: 15-20 l·min–1). Additionally, the process of mixing of the inert gas with water as a modelling agent was enabled to be observed due to introduction of colour tracer (KMnO4). Results obtained from both measuring methods were graphically presented, compared and shortly discussed.
The paper describes research and development of aluminium melt refining technology in a ladle with rotating impeller and breakwaters using numerical modelling of a finite volume/element method. The theoretical aspects of refining technology are outlined. The design of the numerical model is described and discussed. The differences between real process conditions and numerical model limitations are mentioned. Based on the hypothesis and the results of numerical modelling, the most appropriate setting of the numerical model is recommended. Also, the possibilities of monitoring of degassing are explained. The results of numerical modelling allow to improve the refining technology of metal melts and to control the final quality under different boundary conditions, such as rotating speed, shape and position of rotating impeller, breakwaters and intensity of inert gas blowing through the impeller.
The publication presents the comparison of selected refining methods (gaseous and/or flux) based on mechanical properties of the obtained secondary silumin EN AC-AlSi7Mg0.3 (in accordance to the European Standard PN-EN 1706:2011). The point of reference was a similar primary alloy produced using pure batch materials. The mechanical properties measured in room temperature were used to calculate the materials quality index. The research showed, that properly carried out refinement process of secondary (recycled) alloys can bring their quality indexes close to those of their primary materials. The goal was to assess the efficiency of selected refining methods when applied to the examined group of casting silumins, by measuring the basic mechanical properties (in room temperature) before and after refining. The practical aspect was to choose an effective (ecologically, technologically and economically) method of refining of secondary EN AC-AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy used to cast car rims for JN METAL company in Ostowiec Świętokrzyski (Poland).
During the slag refining process, in the real systems, the complex processes of mass exchange appear. Some relations between the stimulators in the environment - slag - metal system allow to initiate mass exchange reactions in the process of slag refining. Due to this kind of influences there is a possibility of direction and control of melting copper and it’s alloys.
This paper deals with the possibilities of using physical modelling to study the degassing of metal melt during its treatment in the refining ladle. The method of inert gas blowing, so-called refining gas, presents the most common operational technology for the elimination of impurities from molten metal, e.g. for decreasing or removing the hydrogen content from liquid aluminium. This refining process presents the system of gas-liquid and its efficiency depends on the creation of fine bubbles with a high interphase surface, uniform distribution, long period of its effect in the melt, and mostly on the uniform arrangement of bubbles into the whole volume of the refining ladle. Physical modelling represents the basic method of modelling and it makes it possible to obtain information about the course of refining processes. On the basis of obtained results, it is possible to predict the behaviour of the real system during different changes in the process. The experimental part focuses on the evaluation of methodical laboratory experiments aimed at the proposal and testing of the developed methods of degassing during physical modelling. The results obtained on the basis of laboratory experiments realized on the specific physical model were discussed.
The work presents the results of the investigations of the effect of the nitrogen (N2) refining time „τraf” and the gas output on the course of the crystallization process, the microstructure and the gassing degree of silumin 226 used for pressure casting. The refinement of the examined silumin was performed with the use of a device with a rotating head. The crystallization process was examined by way of thermal analysis and derivative analysis TDA. The performed examinations showed that the prolongation of the N2 refining time causes a significant rise of the temperature of the crystallization end of the silumin, „tL”, as well as a decrease of its gassing degree, „Z”. An increase of the nitrogen output initially causes an increase of the temperature „tL” and a drop of the gassing degree „Z”, which reach their maximal values with the output of 20 dm3 /min. Further increase of the output causes a decrease of the value „tL” and an increase of „Z”. The examined technological factors of the refining process did not cause any significant changes in the microstructure of silumin 226.
This article contains information concerning of the analysis the possibility of defining refinery qualities of the slag based thermophysical and thermodynamical data. The paper presents a model of slag refining processes and a method of determining the reduction capability of slag solutions. Slag was analysed with the use of the DTA methods for the brass melting conductions. The study of computer program including the satisfactory number of data there are used in to the design a modern device rotating head used for gas-slag refining. It was achieved that the refining gas and fluxes were distributed ever by the rotating head. High effectiveness of the gas-slag refining processes was proved for the brass.
Cast irons are good examples of materials which are more sensitive to chemical composition and production conditions. In this research to improve casting quality, solidification and nucleation process in grey cast iron was investigate. In particular, attempts have been made to rationalize variation in eutectic cells with nucleation sites and eutectic solidification undercooling. Four castings with different diameter and similar chemical composition and pouring temperature and different inoculant percentage was casted. The cooling curve and maximum and minimum undercooling for each castings was measured. Also optical metallography and image analyzer has been used to determine the average eutectic cells diameter, and linear and surface densities, and volume density was calculated. The results of this research show a competitive behavior between nucleation sites and eutectic undercooling. Higher nucleation sites and higher eutectic undercooling cause higher eutectic cell density. But increasing nucleation sites by introducing inoculants to molten metal, is accompanied with reduction in eutectic undercooling. It means that inoculation and undercooling have opposite effect on each other. So, to achieve maximum cell density, it is necessary to create an optimization between these parameters.
It is demonstrated that during secondary refining at the ladle furnace the carbon content of steel and the residence time of the metal in the ladle exert a significant impact on the residual content of non-metallic inclusions (NMI) in steel. Mathematical calculations showed that the dynamic forces have minor effect on the motion of small sized NMI, making it difficult to penetrate deep into the slag.
A series of Al-5Ti-1B master alloys were obtained via fluoride salt process by holding them between 780°C and 880°C for 10-90 min. The influence of holding temperature and time during preparation on the microstructure and its refining performance were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equ ipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated both the morphology and the distribution of TiB2 and Al3Ti were seriously affected by holding conditions. Inadequate TiB2 particles were generated when holding time was short. However, Fe-containing impurity particles that aggregated along the matrix grain boundaries were found after the prolonged holding time. The refining and microhardness test results revealed that Al -5Ti-1B, the one held at 820°C for 30 min showed the optimum refining efficiency on Al-Cu alloy.
The paper deals with the effect of microstructure diversified by means of variable cooling rate on service properties of AlSi7Mg cast alloy refined traditionally with Dursalit EG 281, grain refining with titanium-boron and modified with sodium and a variant of the same alloy barbotage-refined with argon and simultaneously grain refining with titanium-boron and modified with strontium. For both alloy variants, the castings were subject to T6 thermal treatment (solution heat treatment and artificial aging). It turned out that AlSi7Mg alloy after simultaneous barbotage refining with argon and grain refining with titanium-boron and modified with strontium was characterised with lower values of representative microstructure parameters (SDAS – secondary dendrite arm spacing, λE, lmax) and lower value of the porosity ratio compared to the alloy refined traditionally with Dursalit EG 281 and grain refining with titanium-boron and modified with sodium. The higher values of mechanical properties and fatigue strength parameters were obtained for the alloy simultaneously barbotagerefined with argon and grain refining with titanium-boron and modified with strontium.