The paper presents results of a study concerning an AlSi7Mg alloy and the effect of subjecting the liquid metal to four different processes: conventional refining with hexachloroethane; the same refining followed by modification with titanium, boron, and sodium; refining by purging with argon carried out in parallel with modification with titanium and boron salts and strontium; and parallel refining with argon and modification with titanium, boron, and sodium salts. The effect of these four processes on compactness of the material, parameters of microstructure, and fatigue strength of AlSi7Mg alloy after heat treatment. It has been found that the highest compactness (the lowest porosity ratio value) and the most favorable values of the examined parameters of microstructure were demonstrated by the alloy obtained with the use of the process including parallel purging with argon and modification with salts of titanium, boron, and sodium. It has been found that in the fatigue cracking process observed in all the four variants of the liquid metal treatment, the crucial role in initiation of fatigue cracks was played by porosity. Application of the process consisting in refining by purging with argon parallel to modification with Ti, B, and Na salts allowed to refine the microstructure and reduce significantly porosity of the alloy extending thus the time of initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. The ultimate effect consisted in a distinct increase of the fatigue limit value.
Slag refining slag with west materials was analysed used the DTA methods. In the paper a method of determining the reduction capability, with the Carbo-N-Ox method, of slag solutions was used. Some relations between the stimulators in the environment - slag - metal system allow to initiate mass exchange reactions in the process of slag refining.The presented in work course of behaviour permits on choice of basic composition of slaglite, the of necessary components stimulating quantities, as well as on accomplishment of opinion of ability refinement. The worked out programme Slag-Prop, after introduction of data with experiment, it allows on next corrections in composition of proposed mixtures also, should be put on properly elaborated factors of multistage reaction with essential usage of suitable stimulators.
The effect of combination grain refinement with AlTi5B1 master (55 ppm) and Sr-modification with AlSr5 master (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 ppm) on the microstructure, tensile and hardness properties of AlSi7MgTi cast alloy were systematically investigated. Eutectic silicon was studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy after standard (0.5% HF) and deep etching (HCl). Morphology of eutectic Si changes from compact plate-like (as-cast state) to fibbers (after modification). Si-fibbers in samples with 50 and 60 ppm Sr coarsen probably as a result of over-modification. The optimum mechanical properties has the experimental material which was grain refined and modified with 40 ppm of Sr (UTS = 220.6 MPa; ductility = 6.1%, and 82.3 HBW 5/250/15).
This paper presents a study of the effect of the modification and cooling rate on the grain count α(Al) in the Al-5Cu alloy. Research was performed on castings with walls thickness between 3 mm and 25 mm. Cooling curves were recorded to determine the cooling rate and the degree of undercooling at the beginning of solidification. It has been shown that cooling rate increases exponentially as the wall thickness of casting decreases. Moreover it has been demonstrated that the cooling rate of castings changes within a wide range (21ºC/s - 1ºC/s) when the wall thickness changes from 3 up to 25 mm. Metallographic examinations revealed primary grains (primary α(Al) grains). The paper show that the relationship between the grain count and the degree of undercooling (for non-modified and modified alloys) can be represented by the equation N = Nv = np·exp(-b/ΔTα), based on the Weibull's distribution of the size of nucleation sites.
Grain refining and modification are common foundry practice for improving properties of cast Al-Si alloys. In general, these types of treatments provide better fluidity, decreased porosity, higher yield strength and ductility. However, in practice, there are still some discrepancies on the reproducibility of the results from grain refining and effect of the refiner’s additions. Several factors include the fading effect of grain refinement and modifiers, inhomogeneous dendritic structure and non-uniform eutectic modification. In this study, standard ALCAN test was used by considering Taguchi’s experimental design techniques to evaluate grain refinement and modification efficiency. The effects of five casting parameters on the grain size have been investigated for A357 casting alloy. The results showed that the addition of the grain refiner was the most effective factor on the grain size. It was found that holding time, casting temperature, alloy type and modification with Sr were less effective over grain refinement.
The study attempts to investigate the influence of severe plastic deformation (SPD in the hydrostatic extrusion (HE) process on the anisotropy of the structure and mechanical properties of the AA 6060 alloy. Material in isotropic condition was subjected to a single round of hydrostatic extrusion with three different degrees of deformation (ε = 1.23, 1.57, 2.28). They allowed the grain size to be fragmented to the nanocrystalline level. Mechanical properties of the AA 6060 alloy, examined on mini-samples, showed an increase in ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS) as compared to the initial material. Significant strengthening of the material results from high grain refinement in transverse section, from »220 μm in the initial material to »300 nm following the HE process. The material was characterized by the occurrence of structure anisotropy, which may determine the potential use of the material. Static tensile tests of mini-samples showed »10% anisotropy of properties between longitudinal and transverse cross-sections. In the AA6060 alloy, impact anisotropy was found depending on the direction of its testing. Higher impact toughness was observed in the cross-section parallel to the HE direction. The results obtained allow to analyze the characteristic structure created during the HE process and result in more efficient use of the AA 6060 alloy in applications.
The paper deals with hypereutectic high chromium cast irons. The subject of examination was the effect of various alloying elements (Ti, W, Mo, V) on the size of primary carbides and on the resultant material hardness. Using a scanning electron microscope with a wave dispersion analyser, the carbon content in carbides was established. To determine the other elements, an energy dispersion analyser was used. It was found that both the primary and the eutectic carbides were of the M7C3 type and very similar in composition. The carbides always contained Cr and Fe, and also W, Mo, V or Ti, in dependence on the alloying elements used. The structure of materials containing only chromium without any alloying additions exhibited coarse acicular primary carbides. The structure of materials alloyed with another element was always finer. Marked refinement was obtained by Ti alloying.
The paper is devoted to grain-refinement of the medium-aluminium zinc based alloys (MAl-Zn). The system examined was sand cast Zn10 wt. %. Al binary alloy (Zn-10Al) doped with commercial Al-3 wt. % Ti – 0.15 wt. % C grain refiner (Al-3Ti-0.15C GR). Basing on the measured attenuation coefficient of ultrasonic wave it was stated that together with significantly increased structure fineness damping decreases only by about 10 – 20%. The following examinations should establish the influence of the mentioned grain-refinement on strength and ductility of MAl-Zn cast alloys.
The subject of this study is the presentation of relation between the degree of structure fineness and ultrasonic wave damping coefficient for the high-zinc aluminium alloys represented in this study by the sand mould cast alloy Al - 20 wt% Zn (AlZn20). The studied alloy was refined with a modifying (Al,Zn)-Ti3 ternary master alloy, introducing Ti in the amount of 400 pm into metal. Based on the analysis of the initial and modified alloy macrostructure images and ultrasonic testing, it was found that the addition of (Al,Zn)-Ti3 master alloy, alongside a significant fragmentation of grains, does not reduce the coefficient of ultrasonic waves with a frequency of 1 MHz.
The paper presents relationships between the degree of structure fineness and feeding quality of the Al – 20 wt.% Zn (Al-20 Zn) alloy cast into a mould made from sand containing silica quartz as a matrix and bentonite as a binder, and its damping coefficient of the ultrasound wave at frequency of 1 MHz. The structure of the examined alloy was grain refined by the addition of the refining Al-3 wt.% Ti – 0.15 wt.%C (TiCAl) master alloy. The macrostructure analysis of the initial alloy without the addition of Ti and the alloy doped with 50-100 ppm Ti as well as results of damping experiments showed that the structure of the modified alloy is significantly refined. At the same time, its damping coefficient decreases by about 20-25%; however, it still belongs to the so called high-damping alloys. Additionally, it was found that despite of using high purity metals Al and Zn (minimum 99,99% purity), differences in the damping coefficient for samples cut from upper and bottom parts of the vertically cast rolls were observed. These differences are connected with the insufficient feeding process leading to shrinkage porosity as well as gases present in metal charges which are responsible for bubbles of gas-porosity.
It is well-known that the better the control of the liquid aluminium allows obtaining of better properties. One of the most important defects that is held responsible for lower properties has been the presence of porosity. Porosity has always been associated with the amount of dissolved hydrogen in the liquid. However, it was shown that hydrogen was not the major source but only a contributor the porosity. The most important defect that causes porosity is the presence of bifilms. These defects are surface entrained mainly due to turbulence and uncontrolled melt transfer. In this work, a cylindrical mould was designed (Ø30 x 300 mm) both from sand and die. Moulds were produced both from sand and die. Water cooled copper chill was placed at the bottom of the mould in order to generate a directional solidification. After the melt was prepared, prior to casting of the DC cast samples, reduced pressure test sample was taken to measure the melt quality (i.e. bifilm index). The cast parts were then sectioned into regions and longitudinal and transverse areas were investigated metallographically. Pore size, shape and distribution was measured by image analysis. The formation of porosity was evaluated by means of bifilm content, size and distribution in A356 alloy.
In this work, T-shaped mould design was used to generate hot spot and the effect of Sr and B on the hot tearing susceptibility of A356 was investigated. The die temperature was kept at 250o C and the pouring was carried out at 740o C. The amonut of Sr and B additions were 30 and 10 ppm, respectively. One of the most important defects that may exist in cast aluminium is the presence of bifilms. Bifilms can form by the surface turbulence of liquid metal. During such an action, two unbonded surfaces of oxides fold over each other which act as a crack. Therefore, this defect cause many problems in the cast part. In this work, it was found that bifilms have significant effect over the hot tearing of A356 alloy. When the alloy solidifies directionally, the structure consists of elongated dendritic structure. In the absence of equiaxed dendrites, the growing tips of the dendrites pushed the bifilms to open up and unravel. Thus, leading to enlarged surface of oxide to become more harmful. In this case, it was found that these bifilms initiate hot tearing.
In the present study, the corrosion behaviour of A356 (Al-7Si-0.3Mg) alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution has been evaluated using cyclic/potentiodynamic polarization tests. The alloy was provided in the unmodified form and it was then modified with AlTi5B1 for grain refinement and with AlSr15 for Si modifications. These modifications yield to better mechanical properties. Tensile tests were performed. In addition, bifilm index and SDAS values were calculated and microstructure of the samples was investigated. As a result of the corrosion test, the Ecorr values for all conditions were determined approximately equal, and the samples were pitted rapidly. The degassing of the melt decreased the bifilm index (i.e. higher melt quality) and thereby the corrosion resistance was increased. The lowest corrosion rate was founded at degassing and as-received condition (3.9x10-3 mm/year). However, additive elements do not show the effect which degassing process shows.
The paper presents an algorithm for the construction of an approximation of a highly nonlinear current-flux characteristic of a synchronous reluctance machine. Such an approximation is required in a Hamiltonian model of an electric machine and the constructed approximation is suited to be used in such a model. It employs a simplicial approximation based on irregular points sets in the spaces of currents and fluxes. The sets are constructed by the iterative insertion of new points. Initially the sets contain an arbitrarily small number of elements. The insertion is based on an approximation error calculation. Based on the sets containing possibly small number of elements, the proposed procedure leads to smooth and precise approximation. Due to the nonlinearity of the approximated characteristics, ambiguities can occur. A method for the triangulation refinement of the sets of currents and fluxes that eliminates them is also presented. In the paper, a reluctance machine model using the constructed approximation is described and compared with a model using the approximation based on regular sets.
The paper gives an introduction to nanostructuring techniques used for industrial fabrication of bulk nanocrystalline metals basic materials utilized in shaping nanoscale structures. Nanostructured metals, called nanometals, can be produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD). We give an expert coverage of current achievements in all important SPD methods and present future industry developments and research directions including both batch and continuous processes. In the laboratories of both WUT and UOS we have developed industry standard equipment and machinery for nanometals processing. Utilizing the latest examples from our research, we provide a concise introduction to the field of mass production of nanometals for nanotechnology.
In this research, we investigated the effects of reduction atmospheres on the creation of the Mo-Si-B intermetallic compounds (IMC) during the heat treatments. For outstanding anti-oxidation and elevated mechanical strength at the ultrahigh temperature, we fabricated the uniformly dispersed IMC powders such as Mo5SiB2 (T2) and Mo3Si (A15) phases using the two steps of chemical reactions. Especially, in the second procedure, we studied the influence of the atmospheres (e.g. vacuum, argon, and hydrogen) on the synthesis of IMCs during the reduction. Furthermore, the newly produced IMCs were observed by SEM, XRD, and EDS to identify the phase of the compounds. We also calculated an amount of IMCs in the reduced powders depending on the atmosphere using the Reitveld refinement method. Consequently, it is found that hydrogen atmosphere was suitable for fabrication of IMC without other IMC phases.
The paper presents results of measuring attenuation coefficient of the Al-20 wt.% Zn alloy (AlZn20) inoculated with different grain refiners. During experiments the melted alloys were doped with Al-Ti3-C0.15 refining master alloy. Basing on measurements performed by Krautkramer USLT2000 device with 1MHz ultrasound wave frequency it was stated that grain refinement reduces the attenuation coefficient by about 20-25%. However, the examined alloys can be still classified as the high-damping ones of attenuation greater than 150 dB/m.