In this study, silicon carbide (SiC) reinforced lead-free solder (SAC305) was prepared by the powder metallurgy method. In this method SAC305 powder and SiC powder were milled, compressed and sintered to prepare composite solder. The composite solders were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy for the microstructural investigation and mechanical test. Addition of 1.5 wt. % and 2 wt. % ceramic reinforcement to the composite increased compressive strengths and microhardness up to 38% and 68% compared to those of the monolithic sample. In addition, the ceramic particles caused an up to 55% decrease in the wetting angle between the substrate and the composite solder and porosity was always increased with increase of SiC particles.
In this work, the change of the structure and microhardness of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy after remelting and remelting with SiC alloing by electric arc welding (GTAW method) was studied. The current intensity equal 100 A and fixed scan speed rate equal 0,2 m/min has been used to remelting surface of the alloy. Change of structure were investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Microhardness test showed, that the remelting of the surface does not change the hardness of the alloy. Treated by GTAW SiC alloying leads to the formation of hard (570 HV0, 1) surface layer with a thickness of 2 mm. The resulting surface layer is characterized by diverse morphology alloyed zone. The fracture of alloy after conventional heat treatment, similarly to fracture after remelting with GTAW is characterized by extremely fine dimples of plastic deformation. In the alloyed specimens the intergranular and crystalline fracture was identified.
In the present work, rapidly solidified Al-10Ni-XSc (X = 0, 1 and 2) alloys were fabricated by melt spinning under Ar atmosphere. The Effects of Sc on the microstructural and thermal properties and microhardness values were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and a Vickers microhardness tester. Experimental results revealed that the addition of 2 wt. % Sc to melt-spun Al-10Ni alloys changed their brittle nature and hindered formation of cracks. The addition of Sc to melt-spun Al-10Ni alloys also changed the morphology of Al3Ni intermetallics from an acicular/needle – like to a rounded particle-like structure and led to reduction in their size. Formation of the metastable Al9Ni2 phase was observed due to the higher constitutional undercooling caused by Sc addition. A considerable improvement in microhardness value (from 95. 9 to 230. 1 HV) was observed with the addition of Sc.
The modified surface layers of Mg enriched with Al and Si were fabricated by thermochemical treatment. The substrate material in contact with an Al + 20 wt.% Si powder mixture was heated to 445ºC for 40 or 60 min. The microstructure of the layers was examined by OM and SEM. The chemical composition of the layer and the distribution of elements were determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The experimental results show that the thickness of the layer is dependent on the heating time. A much thicker layer (1 mm) was obtained when the heating time was 60 min than when it was 40 min (600 μm). Both layers had a non-homogeneous structure. In the area closest to the Mg substrate, a thin zone of a solid solution of Al in Mg was detected. It was followed by a eutectic with Mg17Al12and a solid solution of Al in Mg. The next zone was a eutectic with agglomerates of Mg2Si phase particles; this three-phase structure was the thickest. Finally, the area closest to the surface was characterized by dendrites of the Mg17Al12phase. The microhardness of the modified layer increased to 121-236 HV as compared with 33-35 HV reported for the Mg substrate.
The wear behaviour of Cr3C2-25% NiCr laser alloyed nodular cast iron sample were analyzed using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The influence of sliding velocity, temperature and load on laser alloyed sample was focused and the microscopic images were used for metallurgical examination of the worn-out sites. Box-Behnken method was utilised to generate the mathematical model for the condition parameters. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based models are varied to analyse the process parameters interaction effects. Analysis of variance was used to analyse the developed model and the results showed that the laser alloyed sample leads to a minimum wear rate (0.6079×10–3 to 1.8570×10–3 mm3/m) and coefficient of friction (CoF) (0.43 to 0.53). From the test results, it was observed that the experimental results correlated well with the predicted results of the developed mathematical model.
Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was used as a technique for severe plastic deformation (SPD) on Al alloy AA3004. This technique produced fully dense materials of refined grain structure to sub-micrometer dimensions and advanced mechanical properties. The ECAP processing of samples was conducted as 1 to 4 passes through the die at room temperature. We present the results of the studied homogeneity evolution with the ECAP treatment. Furthermore, a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used for examination of the microstructure changes in samples undergone from 1 to 4 passes. The microhardness-HV increased upon each ECAP pass. The resulting micro-hardness evolution was attributed to crystalline microstructure modifications, such as the d-spacing (studied by X-ray Diffraction-XRD) depending on the number of ECAP pressings. The microcrystalline changes (grain refining evaluated from the Scanning Electron Microscopy – SEM images) were found to be related to the HV, following the Hall-Petch equation.
Widely used in the power and mining industry, cast Hadfield steel is resistant to wear, but only when operating under impact loads. Components made from this alloy exposed to the effect of abrasion under load-free conditions are known to suffer rapid and premature wear. To increase the abrasion resistance of cast high-manganese steel under the conditions where no dynamic loads are operating, primary titanium carbides are formed in the process of cast steel melting, to obtain in the alloy after solidification and heat treatment, the microstructure composed of very hard primary carbides uniformly distributed in the austenitic matrix of a hardness superior to the hardness of common cast Hadfield steel. Hard titanium carbides ultimately improve the wear resistance of components operating under shear conditions. The measured microhardness of the as-cast matrix in samples tested was observed to increase with the increasing content of titanium and was 380 HV0.02 for the content of 0.4%, 410 HV0.02 for the content of 1.5% and 510 HV0.02 for the content of 2 and 2.5%. After solution heat treatment, the microhardness of the matrix was 460÷480 HV0.02 for melts T2, T3 and T6, and 580 HV0.02 for melt T4, and was higher than the values obtained in common cast Hadfield steel (370 HV0.02 in as-cast state and 340÷370 HV0.02 after solution heat treatment). The measured microhardness of alloyed cementite was 1030÷1270 HV0.02; the microhardness of carbides reached even 2650÷4000 HV0.02.
With the increase in wall thickness of the casting of iron-nickel-aluminium-bronze, by the reduction of the cooling rate the size of κII phase precipitates increases. This process, in the case of complex aluminium bronzes with additions of Cr, Mo and W is increased. Crystallization of big κII phase, during slow cooling of the casting, reduces the concentration of additives introduced to the bronze matrix and hardness. Undertaken research to develop technology of thick-walled products (g> 6 mm) of complex aluminium bronzes. Particular attention was paid to the metallurgy of granules. As a result, a large cooling speed of the alloy, and also high-speed solidification casting a light weight of the granules allows: to avoid micro-and macrosegregation, decreasing the particle size, increase the dispersion of phases in multiphase alloys. Depending on the size granules as possible is to provide finished products with a wall thickness greater than 6 mm by infiltration of liquid alloy of granules (composites). Preliminary studies was conducted using drip method granulate of CuAl10Fe5Ni5 bronze melted in a INDUTHERM-VC 500 D Vacuum Pressure Casting Machine. This bronze is a starting alloy for the preparation of the complex aluminium bronzes with additions of Cr, Mo, W and C or Si. Optimizations of granulation process was carried out. As the process control parameters taken a casting temperature t (°C) and the path h (mm) of free-fall of the metal droplets in the surrounding atmosphere before it is intensively cooled in a container of water. The granulate was subjected to a sieve analysis. For the objective function was assume maximize of the product of Um*n, the percentage weight "Um" and the quantity of granules 'n' in the mesh fraction. The maximum value of the ratio obtained for mesh fraction a sieve with a mesh aperture of 6.3 mm. In the intensively cooled granule of bronze was identified microstructure composed of phases: β and fine bainite (α+β'+β'1) and a small quantity of small precipitates κII phase. Get high microhardness bronze at the level of 323±27,9 HV0,1.
Cast high-manganese Hadfield steel is commonly used for machine components operating under dynamic load conditions. Their high fracture toughness and abrasive wear resistance is the result of an austenitic structure, which - while being ductile - at the same time tends to surface harden under the effect of cold work. Absence of dynamic loads (e.g. in the case of sand abrasion) causes rapid and premature wear of parts. In order to improve the abrasive wear resistance of cast high-manganese steel for operation under the conditions free from dynamic loads, primary titanium carbides are produced in this cast steel during melting process to obtain in castings, after melt solidification, the microstructure consisting of an austenitic matrix and primary carbides uniformly distributed therein. After heat treatment, the microhardness of the austenitic matrix of such cast steel is up to 580 μHV20 and the resulting carbides may reach even 4000 μHV20. The impact strength of this cast steel varies from 57 to 129 and it decreases with titanium content. Compared to common cast Hadfield steel, the abrasive wear resistance determined in Miller test is at least twice as high for the 0.4% Ti alloy and continues growing with titanium content.
Poppet valves made from high-frequency heat-treated SUH3 steel have insufficient durability, and scratches appear on the valve face in prolonged use. It is necessary to develop surface treatment technology with excellent durability to prevent the deterioration of engine performance. Therefore, a surface treatment technology with higher abrasion resistance than existing processes was developed by direct metal deposition to the face where the cylinder and valve are closed. In this study, heat pretreatment and deposition tests were performed on three materials to find suitable powders. In the performance evaluation, the hardness, friction coefficient, and wear rate were measured. Direct metal deposition using Inconel 738 and Stellite 6 powders without heat pretreatment were experimentally verified to have excellent durability.
In the present study, butt joints of aluminum (Al) 8011-H18 and pure copper (Cu) were produced by friction stir welding (FSW) and the effect of plunge depth on surface morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The welds were produced by varying the plunge depth in a range from 0.1 mm to 0.25 mm. The defect-free joints were obtained when the Cu plate was fixed at the advancing side. It was found that less plunging depth gives better tensile properties compare to higher plunging depth because at higher plunging depth local thinning occurs at the welded region. Good tensile properties were achieved at plunge depth of 0.2 mm and the tensile strength was found to be higher than the strength of the Al (weaker of the two base metals). Microstructure study revealed that the metal close to copper side in the Nugget Zone (NZ) possessed lamellar alternating structure. However, mixed structure of Cu and Al existed in the aluminum side of NZ. Higher microhardness values were witnessed at the joint interfaces resulting from plastic deformation and the presence of intermetallics.
The aim of that work was the evaluation of the quality of welded connections elements (welds) from the 30HGS steel and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. The metallographic, factographic tests were used, and measurements of microhardness with the Vickers method. In the head weld of the 30HGS steel there were non-metallic partial division and bubbles observed. The average microhardness in the head connection was 320 HV0.1. There was no significant increase/decrease observed of microhardness in the head influence zone of the weld. There was a good condition of head connections observed, in accordance with the standard EN12517 and EN25817. In the head weld of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy there were single, occasional non-metallic interjections and bubbles observed. There were no cracks both on the weld, and on the border of the heat influence zone. The value of microhardness in head connection was in the range 300÷445 HV0.1. Reveal a very good condition of the head connections in accordance with the standard EN12517 and EN25817. The factographic tests prove the correctness of welded connections done and then heat treatment in case of steel and titanium alloy.