To investigate the mechanical properties of tunnel lining concrete under different moderate-low strain rates after high temperatures, uniaxial compression tests in association with ultrasonic tests were performed. Test results show that the ultrasonic wave velocity and mass loss of concrete specimen begin to sharply drop after high temperatures of 600°C and 400°C, respectively, at the strain rates of 10‒5s‒1 to 10‒2s‒1. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of specimen increase with increasing strain rate after the same temperature, but it is difficult to obtain an evident change law of peak strain with increasing strain rate. The compressive strength of concrete specimen decreases first, and then increases, but decreases again in the temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800°C at the strain rates of 10‒5s‒1 to 10‒2s‒1. It can be observed that the strain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength of specimen increases with increasing temperature. In addition, the peak strain also increases but the elastic modulus decreases substantially with increasing temperature under the same strain rate.
The results presented in this article are part of the research on fatigue life of various foundry alloys carried out in recent years in the Lukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Precision Mechanics and AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering. The article discusses the test results obtained for the EN-GJS-600-3 cast iron in an original modified low-cycle fatigue test (MLCF), which seems to be a beneficial research tool allowing its users to evaluate the mechanical properties of materials with microstructural heterogeneities under both static and dynamic loads. For a comprehensive analysis of the mechanical behaviour with a focus on fatigue life of alloys, an original modified low cycle fatigue method (MLCF) adapted to the actually available test machine was used. The results of metallographic examinations carried out by light microscopy were also presented. From the analysis of the results of the conducted mechanical tests and structural examinations it follows that the MLCF method is fully applicable in a quick and economically justified assessment of the quality of ductile iron after normalizing treatment.
For the purpose of making of a solid body of an electric guitar the acoustic- and mechanical properties of walnut- (Juglans regia L.) and ash wood (Fraxinus excelsior L.) were researched. The acoustic properties were determined in a flexural vibration response of laboratory conditioned wood elements of 430 × 186 × 42.8 mm used for making of a solid body of an electric guitar. The velocity of shearand compression ultrasonic waves was additionally determined in parallel small oriented samples of 80 × 40 × 40 mm. The research confirmed better mechanical properties of ash wood, that is, the larger modulus of elasticity and shear modules in all anatomical directions and planes. The acoustic quality of ash wood was better only in the basic vibration mode. Walnut was, on the other hand, lighter and more homogenous and had lower acoustic- and mechanical anisotropy. Additionally, reduced damping of walnut at higher vibration modes is assumed to have a positive impact on the vibration response of future modelled and built solid bodies of electric guitars. When choosing walnut wood, better energy transfer is expected at a similar string playing frequency and a structure resonance of the electric guitar.
Heating of steel or structural aluminum alloys at a speed of 2 to 50 K/min – characterizing the fire conditions – leads to a reduction in mechanical properties of the analyzed alloys. The limit of proportionality fp, real fy and proof f₀₂ yield limit, breaking strength fu and longitudinal limit of elasticity E decrease as the temperature increases. Quantitative evaluation of the thermal conversion in strengths of structural alloys is published in Eurocodes 3 and 9, in the form of dimensionless graphs depicting reduction coefficients and selected (tabulated) discrete values of mechanical properties. The author’s proposal for an analytical formulation of code curves describing thermal reduction of elasticity modulus and strengths of structural alloys recommended for an application in building structures is presented in this paper.
Final quality of casts produced in a die casting process represents a correlation of setting of technological parameters of die casting cycle, properties of alloy, construction of a die and structure of gating and of bleeding systems. Suitable structure of a gating system with an appertaining bleeding system of the die can significantly influence mechanical and structural properties of a cast. The submitted paper focuses on influence of position of outfall of an gate into the cast on its selected quality properties. Layout of the test casts in the die was designed to provide filling of a shaping cavity by the melt with diverse character of flowing. Setting of input technological parameters during experiment remained on a constant level. The only variable was the position of the gate. Homogeneity represented by porosity f and ultimate strength Rm were selected to be the assessed representative quality properties of the cast. The tests of the influence upon monitored parameters were realized in two stages. The test gating system was primarily subjected to numerical tests with the utilization of a simulation program NovaFlow&Solid. Consequently, the results were verified by the experimental tests carried out with the physical casts produced during operation. It was proved that diverse placement of the gate in relation to the cast influences the mode of the melt flowing through the shaping cavity which is reflected in the porosity of the casts. The experimental test proved correlation of porosity f of the cast with its ultimate strength Rm. At the end of the paper, the interaction dependencies between the gate position, the mode of filling the die cavity, porosity f and ultimate strength Rm.
Results of a research on influence of chromium, molybdenum and aluminium on structure and selected mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron in the as-cast and heat-treated conditions are presented. All raw castings showed austenitic matrix with relatively low hardness, making the material machinable. Additions of chromium and molybdenum resulted in higher inclination to hard spots. However, a small addition of aluminium slightly limited this tendency. Heat treatment consisting in soaking the castings at 500 °C for 4 h resulted in partial transformation of austenite to acicular, carbon-supersaturated ferrite, similar to the bainitic ferrite. A degree of this transformation depended not only on the nickel equivalent value (its lower value resulted in higher transformation degree), but also on concentrations of Cr and Mo (transformation degree increased with increasing total concentration of both elements). The castings with the highest hard spots degree showed the highest hardness, while hardness increase, caused by heat treatment, was the largest in the castings with the highest austenite transformation degree. Addition of Cr and Mo resulted in lower thermodynamic stability of austenite, so it appeared a favourable solution. For this reason, the castings containing the highest total amount of Cr and Mo with an addition of 0.4% Al (to reduce hard spots tendency) showed the highest tensile strength.
Ablation casting is a technological process in which the increased cooling rate causes microstructure refinement, resulting in improved mechanical properties of the final product. This technology is particularly suitable for the manufacture of castings with intricate shapes and thin walls. Currently, the ablation casting process is not used in the Polish industry. This article presents the results of strength tests carried out on moulding sands based on hydrated sodium silicate hardened in the Floster S technology, intended for ablation casting of the AlSi7Mg (AK7) aluminium alloy. When testing the bending and tensile strengths of sands, parameters such as binder and hardener content were taken into account. The sand mixtures were tested after 24h hardening at room temperature. The next stage of the study describes the course of the ablation casting process, starting with the manufacture of foundry mould from the selected moulding mixture and ending in tests carried out on the ready casting to check the surface quality, structure and mechanical properties. The results were compared with the parallel results obtained on a casting gravity poured into the sand mould and solidifying in a traditional way at ambient temperature.
Magnesium alloys thanks to their high specific strength have an extensive potential of the use in a number of industrial applications. The most important of them is the automobile industry in particular. Here it is possible to use this group of materials for great numbers of parts from elements in the car interior (steering wheels, seats, etc.), through exterior parts (wheels particularly of sporting models), up to driving (engine blocks) and gearbox mechanisms themselves. But the use of these alloys in the engine structure has its limitations as these parts are highly thermally stressed. But the commonly used magnesium alloys show rather fast decrease of strength properties with growing temperature of stressing them. This work is aimed at studying this properties both of alloys commonly used (of the Mg-Al-Zn, Mn type), and of that ones used in industrial manufacture in a limited extent (Mg-Al-Sr). These thermomechanical properties are further on complemented with the microstructure analysis with the aim of checking the metallurgical interventions (an effect of inoculation). From the studied materials the test castings were made from which the test bars for the tensile test were subsequently prepared. This test took place within the temperature range of 20°C – 300°C. Achieved results are summarized in the concluding part of the contribution.
Studies were carried out to determine the effect of heat treatment parameters on the plastic properties of unalloyed ausferritic ductile iron, such as the elongation and toughness at ambient temperature and at – 60 °C. The effect of austenitizing temperature (850, 900 and 950°C) and ausferritizing time (5 - 180 min.) at a temperature of 360°C was also discussed. The next step covered investigations of a relationship that is believed to exist between the temperature (270, 300, 330, 360 and 390 °C) and time (5, 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240 min.) of the austempering treatment and the mechanical properties of unalloyed ausferritic ductile iron, when the austenitizing temperature is 950°C. The “process window” was calculated for the ADI characterized by high toughness corresponding to the EN-GJS800-10-RT and EN-GJS-900-8 grades according to EN-PN 1564 and to other high-strength grades included in this standard. Low-alloyed cast iron with the nodular graphite is an excellent starting material for the technological design of all the ausferritic ductile iron grades included in the PN-EN-1624 standard. The examined cast iron is characterized by high mechanical properties stable within the entire range of heat treatment parameters.
The aim of the paper is to validate the use of measurement methods in the study of GFRP joints. A number of tests were carried out by means of a tensile machine. The studies were concerned with rivet connection of composite materials. One performed two series of tests for two different forces and two fibre orientations. Using Finite Element Method (FEM) and Digital Image Correlation (DIC), strain maps in the test samples were defined. The results obtained with both methods were analysed and compared. The destructive force was analysed and, with the use of a strain gauge, the clamping force in a plane parallel to the annihilated sample was estimated. Destruction processes were evaluated and models of destruction were made for this type of materials taking into account their connections, such as riveting.
The melt cleaning is an important aspect in the production of high-quality aluminum castings. Specifically inclusions within the melt and an excessively high hydrogen content lead to defects and undesired porosity in the castings. Although it is possible to reduce the amount of hydrogen and oxidic inclusions by purge gas treatment and the use of melting salts, it is impossible to remove oxides (bifilms) created during filling of gating system. Paper deals with the effects of melt quality and the placement of a filter in the filling system on Al-7%Si-Mg alloy mechanical properties. Three different filters were used: (a) rectangular ceramic pressed filter with 3 mm thickness (b) cubical pressed ceramic filter with thickness 10 mm (c) cubical pressed ceramic filter with thickness 22 mm. The results showed that the highest tensile strength values were obtained from the filter with thickness of 22 mm. Numerical simulation analysis of the filling process showed that velocity reduction by filter is the major phenomenon affecting the mechanical properties. Another evaluated aspect during experiments was capability of filters to retain old bifilms. For this purpose multiply remelted alloy was prepared and analyzed. Results showed that filter efficiency increases with decreasing melt quality as a result of possibility to retain “old” bifilms better than small and thin “new” bifilms.
The microstructures and mechanical properties of T92 martensitic steel/Super304 austenitic steel weld joints with three welding consumables were investigated. Three types of welding materials ERNiCr-3, ERNiCrCoMo-1and T-304H were utilized to obtain dissimilar welds by using gas tungsten arc weld (GTAW). The results show that heat affect zone (HAZ) of T92 steel consists of coarse-grained and fine-grained tempered martensites. The microstructures of joints produced from ERNiCrCoMo-1 consist of equiaxed dendrite and columnar dendrite grains, which are more complicated than that of ERNiCr-3. In the tensile tests, joints constructed from ERNiCrCoMo-1 and T-304H met the ASME standard. The highest fracture energy was observed in specimens with the welding material ERNiCrCoMo-1. Ni content in weld seam of ERNiCrCoMo-1 was highest, which was above 40%. In conclusion, the nickel alloy ERNiCrCoMo-1 was the most suitable welding material for joints produced from T92 martensitic steel/Super304 austenitic steel.
In this article the structural and mechanical properties of grain refinement of Cu-Sn alloys with tin content of 10%, 15% and 20% using the KOBO method have been presented. The direct extrusion by KOBO (name from the combination of the first two letters of the names of its inventors – A. Korbel and W. Bochniak) method employs, during the course of the whole process, a phenomenon of permanent change of strain travel, realized by a periodical, two-sided, plastic metal torsion. Moreover the aim of this work was to study corrosion resistance. The microstructure investigations were performed using an optical microscope Olimpus GX71, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The mechanical properties were determined with INSTRON 4505/5500 machine. Corrosion tests were performed using «Autolab» set – potentiostat/galvanostat from EcoChemie B.V. with GPES software ver. 4.9. The obtained results showed possibility of KOBO deformation of Cu-Sn casting alloys. KOBO processing contributed to the refinement of grains and improved mechanical properties of the alloys. The addition of tin significantly improved the hardness. Meanwhile, with the increase of tin content the tensile strength and yield strength of alloys decrease gradually. Ductility is controlled by eutectoid composition and especially δ phase, because they initiate nucleation of void at the particle/matrix interface. No significant differences in the corrosion resistance between cast and KOBO processed materials were found.
The paper presents the method of preparing a composite slurry composed of AlSi11 alloy matrix and 10 vol.% of SiC particles, as well as the method of its high-pressure die casting and the measurement results concerning the tensile strength, the yield point, the elongation and hardness of the obtained composite. Composite castings were produced at various values of the piston velocity in the second stage of injection, diverse intensification pressure values, and various injection gate width values. There were found the regression equations describing the change of mechanical properties of the examined composite as a function of pressure die casting process parameters. The conclusion gives the analysis and the interpretation of the obtained results.
The results of examinations of the influence of titanium-boron inoculant on the solidification, the microstructure, and the mechanical properties of AlZn20 alloy are presented. The examinations were carried out for specimens cast both of the non-modified and the inoculated alloy. There were assessed changes in the alloy overcooling during the first stage of solidification due to the nuclei-forming influence of the inoculant. The results of quantitative metallographic measurements concerning the refinement of the grain structure of casting produced in sand moulds are presented. The cooling rate sensitivity of the alloy was proved by revealing changes in morphology of the α-phase primary crystals. Differences in mechanical properties resulting from the applied casting method and optional inoculation were evaluated.
This paper deals with computer modelling of the retention of a synthetic diamond particle in a metallic matrix produced by powder metallurgy. The analyzed sintered powders can be used as matrices for diamond impregnated tools. First, the behaviour of sintered cobalt powder was analyzed. The model of a diamond particle embedded in a metallic matrix was created using Abaqus software. The preliminary analysis was performed to determine the mechanical parameters that are independent of the shape of the crystal. The calculation results were compared with the experimental data. Next, sintered specimens obtained from two commercially available powder mixtures were studied. The aim of the investigations was to determine the influence of the mechanical and thermal parameters of the matrix materials on their retentive properties. The analysis indicated the mechanical parameters that are responsible for the retention of diamond particles in a matrix. These mechanical variables have been: the elastic energy of particle, the elastic energy of matrix and the radius of plastic zone around particle.
The results of studies presented in this article are an example of the research activity of the authors related to lead-free alloys. The studies covered binary SnZn90 and SnZn95 lead-free alloys, including their microstructure and complex mechanical characteristics. The microstructure was examined by both light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The identification of alloy chemical composition in micro-areas was performed by SEM/EDS method. As regards light microscopy, the assessment was of both qualitative and quantitative character. The determination of the geometrical parameters of microstructure was based on an original combinatorial method using phase quantum theory. Comprehensive characterization of mechanical behavior with a focus on fatigue life of alloys was performed by means of the original modified low cycle fatigue method (MLCF) adapted to the actually available test machine. The article discusses the fatigue life of binary SnZn90 and SnZn95 alloys in terms of their microstructure. Additionally, the benefits resulting from the use of the combinatorial method in microstructure examinations and MLCF test in the quick estimation of several mechanical parameters have been underlined.
An analysis of the effect of drawing speed on the formation of a zinc coating in the multi-stage fine steel wire drawing process has been carried out in the article. Pre-hardened 2.2 mm-diameter material was drawn into 1.00 mm-diameter wire in 6 draws on a multi-stage drawing machine. The drawing process was carried out at a drawing speed of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 20 m/s, respectively. Mechanical tests were tests were performed for the final wires to determine their yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, uniform and total elongation and reduction in area. The thickness of the zinc coating on the wire surface was determined by the gravimetric method and based on metallographic examination. The use of electron scanning microscopy, on the other hand, enabled the identification of individual phases in the zinc coating. The above investigations were supplemented with corrosion testing of 1.00 mm-diameter wires. It has been demonstrated that drawing speed significantly influences not only the thickness of the zinc coating on the drawn wire surface, buts also its morphology and corrosion resistance.
The study attempts to investigate the influence of severe plastic deformation (SPD in the hydrostatic extrusion (HE) process on the anisotropy of the structure and mechanical properties of the AA 6060 alloy. Material in isotropic condition was subjected to a single round of hydrostatic extrusion with three different degrees of deformation (ε = 1.23, 1.57, 2.28). They allowed the grain size to be fragmented to the nanocrystalline level. Mechanical properties of the AA 6060 alloy, examined on mini-samples, showed an increase in ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS) as compared to the initial material. Significant strengthening of the material results from high grain refinement in transverse section, from »220 μm in the initial material to »300 nm following the HE process. The material was characterized by the occurrence of structure anisotropy, which may determine the potential use of the material. Static tensile tests of mini-samples showed »10% anisotropy of properties between longitudinal and transverse cross-sections. In the AA6060 alloy, impact anisotropy was found depending on the direction of its testing. Higher impact toughness was observed in the cross-section parallel to the HE direction. The results obtained allow to analyze the characteristic structure created during the HE process and result in more efficient use of the AA 6060 alloy in applications.
Ductile iron was quenched using two-variant isothermal transformation. The first treatment variant consisted of one-phase austenitization at a temperature tγ = 830, 860 or 900°C, cooling down to an isothermal transformation temperature of 300 or 400°C and holding from 8 to 64 minutes. The second treatment variant consisted of two-phase austenitization. Cast iron was austenitizied at a temperature tγ = 950°C and cooled down to a supercritical temperature tγ’ = 900, 860 or 830°C. Isothermal transformation was conducted under the same conditions as those applied to the first variant. Ferrite cast iron was quenched isothermally. Basic strength (Rp0.2, Rm) and plastic (A5) properties as well as matrix microstructure and hardness were examined. As a result of heat treatment, the following ADI grades were obtained: EN-GJS-800-8, EN-GJS-1200-2 and EN-GJS-1400-1 in accordance with PN–EN 1564:2000 having plasticity of 1.5÷4 times more than minimum requirements specified in the standard.
Lead-free alloys containing various amounts of zinc (4.5%, 9%, 13%) and constant copper addition (1%) were discussed. The results of microstructure examinations carried out by light microscopy (qualitative and quantitative) and by SEM were presented. In the light microscopy, a combinatorial method was used for the quantitative evaluation of microstructure. In general, this method is based on the phase quanta theory according to which every microstructure can be treated as an arrangement of phases/structural components in the matrix material. Based on this method, selected geometrical parameters of the alloy microstructure were determined. SEM examinations were based on chemical analyses carried out in microregions by EDS technique. The aim of the analyses was to identify the intermetallic phases/compounds occurring in the examined alloys. In fatigue testing, a modified low cycle fatigue test method (MLCF) was used. Its undeniable advantage is the fact that each time, using one sample only, several mechanical parameters can be estimated. As a result of structure examinations, the effect of alloying elements on the formation of intermetallic phases and compounds identified in the examined lead-free alloys was determined. In turn, the results of mechanical tests showed the effect of intermetallic phases identified in the examined alloys on their fatigue life. Some concepts and advantages of the use of the combinatorial and MLCF methods in materials research were also presented.
The paper describes the studies of ternary SnZn9Al1.5 lead-free alloy from the viewpoint of its mechanical behavior as well as microstructure examined by the light and scanning electron microscopy. The authors focused their attention specifically on the fatigue parameters determined by the original modified low-cycle fatigue method (MLCF), which in a quick and economically justified way allows determination of a number of mechanical parameters based on the measurement data coming from one test sample only. The effect of the addition of 1.5% Al to the binary eutectic SnZn9 alloy on its microstructure and the obtained level of mechanical parameters was analyzed. The phases and intermetallic compounds occurring in the alloy were identified based on the chemical analysis carried out in micro-areas by the SEM/EDS technique. It was shown that the addition of 1.5% Al to the binary eutectic SnZn9 alloy resulted in a more favorable microstructure and consequently had a positive effect on the mechanical parameters of the alloy. Based on the conducted research, it was recommended to use a combinatorial method based on the phase quanta theory to quickly evaluate the microstructure and the original MLCF method to determine a number of mechanical parameters.
High-tin bronzes are used for church bells and concert bells (carillons). Therefore, beside their decorative value, they should also offer other functional properties, including their permanence and good quality of sound. The latter is highly influenced by the structure of bell material, i.e. mostly by the presence of internal porosity which interferes with vibration of the bell waist and rim, and therefore should be eliminated. The presented investigations concerning the influence of tin content ranging from 20 to 24 wt% on mechanical properties of high-tin bronzes allowed to prove the increase in hardness of these alloys with simultaneous decrease in the tensile and the impact strengths (Rm and KV, respectively) for the increased tin content. Fractures of examined specimens, their porosity and microstructures were also assessed to explain the observed regularities. A reason of the change in the values of mechanical properties was revealed to be the change in the shape of α-phase crystals from dendritic to acicular one, and generation of grain structure related to the increased Sn content in the alloy.
The study includes the results of research conducted on selected lead-free binary solder alloys designed for operation at high temperatures. The results of qualitative and quantitative metallographic examinations of SnZn alloys with various Zn content are presented. The quantitative microstructure analysis was carried out using a combinatorial method based on phase quanta theory, per which any microstructure can be treated as an array of elements disposed in the matrix material. Fatigue tests were also performed using the capabilities of a modified version of the LCF method hereinafter referred to in short as MLCF, which is particularly useful in the estimation of mechanical parameters when there are difficulties in obtaining many samples normally required for the LCF test. The fatigue life of alloys was analyzed in the context of their microstructure. It has been shown that the mechanical properties are improved with the Zn content increasing in the alloy. However, the best properties were obtained in the alloy with a chemical composition close to the eutectic system, when the Zn-rich precipitates showed the most preferred morphological characteristics. At higher content of Zn, a strong structural notch was formed in the alloy because of the formation in the microstructure of a large amount of the needle-like Zn-rich precipitates deteriorating the mechanical characteristics. Thus, the results obtained during previous own studies, which in the field of mechanical testing were based on static tensile test only, have been confirmed. It is interesting to note that during fatigue testing, both significant strengthening and weakening of the examined material can be expected. The results of fatigue tests performed on SnZn alloys have proved that in this case the material was softened.