In order to determine the leading phase of the Fe - 4.25% C eutectic alloy, the method of directional crystallization, which allows to study the character of the solid / liquid growth front, was used. Examined eutectic was directionally solidified with a constant temperature gradient of G = 33,5 K/mm and growth rate of v = 125 μm/s (450 mm/h). The Bridgman technique was used for the solidification process. The sample was grown by pulling it downwards up to 30 mm in length. The alloy quenched by rapid pulling down into the Ga-In-Sn liquid metal. The sample was examined on the longitudinal section using a light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The shape of the solid/liquid interface and particularly the leading phase protrusion were revealed. The formation of the concave – convex interface has been identified in the quasi-regular eutectic growth arrested by quenching. The cementite phase was determined to be a leading phase. The total protrusion d is marked in the adequate figure.
Eutectic copper oxides (Cu2O) crystallize during the copper solidification process in the ETP grade copper which leads to high oxygen concentrations in interdendritic spaces. It has been experimentally found that they can be regular or elongated, and their size reaches several micrometres. During the multi-cage hot rolling process, homogenization of the oxide distribution in the entire volume of the wire rod occurs. This process is carried out in the soft copper matrix. Throughout the drawing process the fragmentation of oxides transpires along with changes in the shape from angular to more oval in a degree depending on the size of the deformation (wire diameter). Microcracks, fissures and local stress fields in the reinforced copper matrix arise around the oxide particles. The article presents the results of research on the evolution of copper oxides in ingots, wire rods and wires. The results of investigations of the wires properties and the limitations of the drawing process, especially of microwires, are presented.
In this paper, the deviation from eutectic composition in boundary layer for eutectic growth is studied by phase-field method. According to a series of artificial phase diagram, the lamellar eutectic growth of these alloy is simulated during directional solidification. At steady state, average growth velocity of eutectic lamella is equal to the pulling velocity. With the increasing of the liquidus slope of β phase, the average composition in boundary layer would deviate from eutectic composition and the deviation increases. The constitutional undercooling difference between both solid phases caused by the deviation increases with the increasing of the deviation. The β phase would develop a depression under the influence of the deviation.
The effect of combination grain refinement with AlTi5B1 master (55 ppm) and Sr-modification with AlSr5 master (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 ppm) on the microstructure, tensile and hardness properties of AlSi7MgTi cast alloy were systematically investigated. Eutectic silicon was studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy after standard (0.5% HF) and deep etching (HCl). Morphology of eutectic Si changes from compact plate-like (as-cast state) to fibbers (after modification). Si-fibbers in samples with 50 and 60 ppm Sr coarsen probably as a result of over-modification. The optimum mechanical properties has the experimental material which was grain refined and modified with 40 ppm of Sr (UTS = 220.6 MPa; ductility = 6.1%, and 82.3 HBW 5/250/15).
Directionally solidified sample of Fe-Fe3C eutectic alloy were produced under an argon atmosphere in a vacuum Bridgman-type furnace to study the eutectic growth with v = 167 μm/s pulling rate and constant temperature gradient G = 33.5 K/mm. Since how the growth texture of eutectic cementite is related to its growth morphology remains unclear, the current study aims to examine this relationship. The technique such as X-ray diffraction, have been used for the crystallographic analysis of carbide particles in white cast irons.
The paper presents a solidification sequence of graphite eutectic cells of A and D types, as well as globular and cementite eutectics. The morphology of eutectic cells in cast iron, the equations for their growth and the distances between the graphite precipitations in A and D eutectic types were analyzed. It is observed a critical eutectic growth rate at which one type of eutectic transformed into another. A mathematical formula was derived that combined the maximum degree of undercooling, the cooling rate of cast iron, eutectic cell count and the eutectic growth rate. One type of eutectic structure turned smoothly into the other at a particular transition rate, transformation temperature and transformational eutectic cell count. Inoculation of cast iron increased the number of eutectic cells with flake graphite and the graphite nodule count in ductile iron, while reducing the undercooling. An increase in intensity of inoculation caused a smooth transition from a cementite eutectic structure to a mixture of cementite and D type eutectic structure, then to a mixture of D and A types of eutectics up to the presence of only the A type of eutectic structure. Moreover, the mechanism of inoculation of cast iron was studied.
Studies were conducted on a zinc coating produced on the surface of ductile iron grade EN-GJS-500-7 to determine the eutectic grain effect. For this purpose, castings with a wall thickness of 5 to 30 mm were made and the resulting structure was examined. To obtain a homogeneous metal matrix, samples were subjected to a ferritising annealing treatment. To enlarge the reaction surface, the top layer was removed from casting by machining. Then hot dip galvanising treatment was performed at 450°C to capture the kinetics of growth of the zinc coating (in the period from 60 to 600 seconds). Analysing the test results it was found that within the same time of hot dip galvanising, the differences in the resulting zinc coating thickness on samples taken from castings with different wall cross-sections were small but could, particularly for shorter times of treatment, reduce the continuity of the alloyed layer of the zinc coating.
This article focuses on the study of the influence of remelting and subsequent natural and artificial ageing on the structure of recycled AlSi9Cu3 alloy with increased iron content. The assessed changes in eutectic silicon and iron-based intermetallic phases were carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The degradation of the eutectic silicon morphology due to remelting occurred only at the highest numbers of remelting. The effect of remelting the investigated alloy, which is accompanied by a gradual increase in wt. % Fe, began to manifest significantly through a change in the length of the ferric phases after the fourth remelting. As expected, the artificial ageing process has proven to be more effective than natural ageing. It has led to a change in the eutectic silicon morphology and has been beneficial in reducing the lengths of adverse ferric phases. The use of alloys with higher numbers of remelting, or with greater “contamination”, for the manufacture of shape-challenging castings is possible when using a suitable method of eliminating the negative factors of the remelting process. The results of our investigation show a suitable method of the above elimination the application of heat treatment T5 – via artificial ageing.
A eutectic reaction is a basic liquid-solid transformation, which can be used in the fabrication of high-strength in situ composites. In this study an attempt was made to ensure directional solidification of Fe-C-V alloy with hypereutectic microstructure. In this alloy, the crystallisation of regular fibrous eutectic and primary carbides with the shape of non-faceted dendrites takes place. According to the data given in technical literature, this type of eutectic is suitable for the fabrication of in-situ composites, owing to the fact that a flat solidification front is formed accompanied by the presence of two phases, where one of the phases can crystallise in the form of elongated fibres. In the present study an attempt was also made to produce directionally solidifying vanadium eutectic using an apparatus with a very high temperature gradient amounting to 380 W/cm at a rate of 3 mm/h. Alloy microstructure was examined in both the initial state and after directional solidification. It was demonstrated that the resulting microstructure is of a non-homogeneous character, and the process of directional solidification leads to an oriented arrangement of both the eutectic fibres and primary carbides.
Some eutectic stripes have been generated in a hexagonal (Zn) - single crystal. The stripes are situated periodically with the constant interstripes spacing. The eutectic structure in the stripes consists of strengthening inter-metallic compound, Zn16Ti, and (Zn) – solid solution. The rod-like irregular eutectic structure (with branches) appears at low growth rates. The regular lamellar eutectic structure is observed at middle growth rates. The regular rod-like eutectic structure exists exclusively in the stripes at some elevated growth rates. A new thermodynamic criterion is recommended. It suggests that this eutectic regular structure is the winner in a morphological competition for which the minimum entropy production is lower. A competition between the regular rod-like and the regular lamellar eutectic growth is described by means of the proposed criterion. The formation of branches within irregular eutectic structure is referred to the state of marginal stability. A continuous transitions from the marginal stability to the stationary state are confirmed by the continuous transformations of the irregular eutectic structure into the regular one.
In a vacuum Bridgman-type furnace, under an argon atmosphere, directionally solidified sample of Fe - C alloy was produced. The pulling rate was v = 83 μm/s (300 mm/h) and constant temperature gradient G = 33,5 K/mm. The microstructure of the sample was examined on the longitudinal section using an Optical Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope. The X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction technique (EBSD) have been used for the crystallographic analysis of carbide particles in carbide eutectic. The X-ray diffraction was made parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the goniometer. The EBSD shows the existence of iron carbide Fe3C with orthorhombic and hexagonal structure. Rapid solidification may cause a deformation of the lattice plane which is indicated by different values of the lattice parameters. Such deformation could also be the result of directional solidification. Not all of the peaks in X–ray diffractograms were identified. They may come from other iron carbides. These unrecognized peaks may also be a result of the residual impurity of alloy.
The paper presents adaptation problem of lamellar/rod growth of eutectic. The transformation of eutectic microstructure was investigated systematically. A interpretation of the eutectic growth with theory minimum entropy production was presented.
In Part I of this article, two-stage solidification model was presented. In this part we use our model to simulate solidification of the Al 7% Si alloy for two cooling rates and . Simulations have been performed for two eutectic transformation modes, typical for modified and unmodified alloys. Obtained cooling curves are qualitatively consistent with the typical cooling curves for modified and unmodified alloys. Moreover, evolution of cooling-curve characteristics is compared with the analytical model and found to be in close agreement.
Directional solidification of the Fe - 4,3 wt % C alloy was performed with the pulling rate equal to v=83 μm/s. Sample was frozen during solidification to reveal the shape of the solid/liquid interface. Structures eutectic pyramid and spherolitic eutectic were observed. The solidification front of ledeburite eutectic was revealed. The leading phase was identified and defined.
The paper presents a new numerical model of solidification processes in hypoeutectic alloys. The model combines stochastic elements, such as e.g. random nucleation sites and orientation of dendritic grains, as well as deterministic methods e.g. to compute velocity of dendritic tips and eutectic grains. The model can be used to determine the temperature and the size of structure constituents (of both, the primary solid phase and eutectics) and the arrangement of individual dendritic and eutectic grains in the consecutive stages of solidification. Two eutectic transformation modes, typical to modified and unmodified hypoeutectic alloys, have been included in the model. To achieve this, cellular automata and Voronoi diagrams have been utilized.
In this study, the modification mechanism and growth process of Al3(Sc, Zr) particles in as-cast Al-Si-Mg-Cu based alloy with addition of Sc and Zr were systematically investigated. It was found that 0.57 wt-%Sc addition caused a significant refinement in the average grain size of the investigated alloy, which brought about a remarkable transformation in as-cast microstructure, from thick dendritic shape to fine equiaxed structure. A large amount of primary Al3(Sc, Zr) particles with the dimension of around 5-6 μm were also observed within the equiaxed grain. Due to the identical orientation and similar crystal structure between primary Al3(Sc, Zr) particles and α-Al matrix, the primary particles always served as heterogeneous nucleus for the α-Al matrix. In addition, these cusped cubic primary Al3(Sc, Zr) particles showed triangle, star, rhomboid morphologies are generated from sectioning the particle in (111), (100) and (110) planes, respectively. Particularly, the typical eutectic structure which contained odd number-layer (Al3(Sc, Zr)+α-Al+ +Al3(Sc, Zr)) was observed within the investigated particles.
Mg-0.5Si-xSn (x=0.95, 2.9, 5.02wt.%) alloys were cast and extruded at 593K (320 o C) with an extrusion ratio of 25. The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast and extruded test alloys were investigated by OM, SEM, XRD and tensile tests. The experimental results indicate that the microstructure of the Mg-0.5Si-xSn alloys consists of primary α-Mg dendrites and an interdendritic eutectic containing α-Mg, Mg2Si and Mg2Sn. There is no coarse primary Mg2Si phase in the test alloys due to low Si content. With the increase in the Sn content, the Mg2Si phase was refined. The shape of Mg2Si phase was changed from branch to short bar, and the size of them were reduced. The ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of Mg-0.52Si-2.9Sn alloy at the temperature of 473K (200 o C) reach 133MPa and 112MPa respectively. Refined eutectic Mg2Si phase and dispersed Mg2Sn phase with good elevated temperature stability are beneficial to improve the elevated temperature performance of the alloys. However, with the excess addition of Sn, large block-like Mg2Sn appears around the grain boundary leading to lower mechanical properties.
The paper presents the results of abrasive wear resistance tests carried out on high-vanadium cast iron with spheroidal VC carbides. The cast iron of eutectic composition was subjected to spheroidising treatment using magnesium master alloy. The tribological properties were examined for the base cast iron (W), for the cast iron subjected to spheroidising treatment (S) and for the abrasion-resistant steel (SH). Studies have shown that high-vanadium cast iron with both eutectic carbides and spheroidal carbides has the abrasion resistance twice as high as the abrasion-resistant cast steel. The spheroidisation of VC carbides did not change the abrasion resistance compared to the base high-vanadium grade.
The paper presents the results of tests on the spheroidising treatment of vanadium carbides VC done with magnesium master alloy and mischmetal. It has been proved that the introduction of magnesium master alloy to an Fe-C-V system of eutectic composition made 34% of carbides crystallise in the form of spheroids. Adding mischmetal to the base alloy melt caused 28% of the vanadium carbides crystallise as dendrites. In base alloy without the microstructure-modifying additives, vanadium carbides crystallised in the form of a branched fibrous eutectic skeleton. Testing of mechanical properties has proved that the spheroidising treatment of VC carbides in high-vanadium cast iron increases the tensile strength by about 60% and elongation 14 - 21 times, depending on the type of the spheroidising agent used. Tribological studies have shown that high-vanadium cast iron with eutectic, dendritic and spheroidal carbides has the abrasive wear resistance more than twice as high as the abrasion-resistant cast steel.
Determined were direction and intensity of influence of alloying additions on the number of eutectic graphite colonies in austenitic cast iron Ni-Mn-Cu. Chemical composition of the cast iron was 1.7 to 3.3% C, 1.4 to 3.1% Si, 2.8 to 9.9% Ni, 0.4 to 7.7% Mn, 0 to 4.6% Cu, 0.14 to 0.16% P and 0.03 to 0.04% S. Analysed were structures of mottled (20 castings) and grey (20 castings) cast iron. Obtained were regression equations determining influence intensity of individual components on the number of graphite colonies per 1 cm2 (LK). It was found that, in spite of high total content of alloying elements in the examined cast iron, the element that mainly decides the LK value is carbon, like in a plain cast iron.
High-vanadium cast iron is the white cast iron in which the regular fibrous γ + VC eutectic with the volume fraction of vanadium carbide amounting to about 20% crystallises. This paper presents the results of studies on high-vanadium cast iron subjected to the inoculation treatment with magnesium master alloy. The aim of this operation is to change the morphology of the crystallising VC carbides from the fibrous shape into a spheroidal one. The study also examines the effect of the amount of the introduced inoculant on changes in the morphology of the crystallising VC carbides. To achieve the goals once set, metallographic studies were performed on high-vanadium cast iron of eutectic composition in base state and after the introduction of a variable content of the inoculant. The introduction of magnesium-based master alloy resulted in the expected changes of microstructure. The most beneficial effect was obtained with the introduction of 1.5% of magnesium master alloy, since nearly half of the crystallised vanadium carbides have acquired a spheroidal shape.
Fe - 4,25% C alloy was directionally solidified with a constant temperature gradient of G = 33,5 K/mm and growth rate of v = 83,3 μm/s (300 mm/h) using a vacuum Bridgman-type crystal growing facility with liquid metal cooling technique. To reveal more detailed microstructure, the deep etching was made. This was obtained in the process of electrolytic dissolution. The microstructure of the sample was examined on the longitudinal and transverse sections using an Optical Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope. Using the Electron Backscattered Diffraction technique, phase map and analysis of phase were made. In this paper the analysis of Fe-C alloy eutectic microstructure is presented. Regular eutectic structure was obtained. The fracture surfaces show lamellar structure. Microscopic observation after electrolytic extraction indicates that the grains of longitudinal shape of eutectic cementite have been obtained. These grains are characterized by layered construction with many rounded discontinuities.