In this study the results of simultaneous measurements of dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and pH of two nanofluids, i.e., thermal oil/Al2O3and thermal oil/TiO2are presented. Thermal oil is selected as a base liquid because of possible application in ORC systems as an intermediate heating agent. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.1%, 1%, and 5% by weight within temperature range from 20°C to 60°C. Measurement devices were carefully calibrated by comparison obtained results for pure base liquid (thermal oil) with manufacturer’s data. The results obtained for tested nanofluids were compared with predictions made by use of existing models for liquid/solid particles mixtures.
The aim of this work is the development of Cu-Al2O3 composites of copper Cu-ETP matrix composite materials reinforced by 20 and 30 vol.% Al2O3 particles and study of some chosen physical properties. Squeeze casting technique of porous compacts with liquid copper was applied at the pressure of 110 MPa. Introduction of alumina particles into copper matrix affected on the significant increase of hardness and in the case of Cu-30 vol. % of alumina particles to 128 HBW. Electrical resistivity was strongly affected by the ceramic alumina particles and addition of 20 vol. % of particles caused diminishing of electrical conductivity to 20 S/m (34.5% IACS). Thermal conductivity tests were performed applying two methods and it was ascertained that this parameter strongly depends on the ceramic particles content, diminishing it to 100 Wm-1K-1 for the composite material containing 30 vol.% of ceramic particles comparing to 400 Wm-1K-1 for the unreinforced copper. Microstructural analysis was carried out using SEM microscopy and indicates that Al2O3 particles are homogeneously distributed in the copper matrix. EDS analysis shows remains of silicon on the surface of ceramic particles after binding agent used during preparation of ceramic preforms.
In this study, two different compositions of submicron-structured titanium (760 nm) and micron-structured chromium (4.66 μm) powders were mixed to fabricate Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys by vacuum hot-press sintering. The research imposed various hot-press sintering pressures (20, 35 and 50 MPa), while the sintering temperature maintained at 1250°C for 1 h. The experimental results showed that the optimum parameters of the hot-press sintered Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys were 1250°C at 50 MPa for 1 h. Also, the relative density reached 99.94%, the closed porosity decreased to 0.04% and the hardness and transverse rupture strength (TRS) values increased to 81.90 HRA and 448.53 MPa, respectively. Moreover, the electrical conductivity is enhanced to 1.58 × 104 S·cm–1. However, the grain growth generated during the high-temperature and high-pressure of the hot-press sintering process resulted in the grain coarsening phenomenon of the Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys after 1250°C hot-press sintering at 50 MPa for 1 h. In addition, the Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys were fabricated with the submicron-structured titanium (760 nm) and chromium (588 nm) powders showed more effective compaction than the micron-structured titanium (760 nm) and chromium (4.66 μm) powders did. The closed porosity decreases to 0.02% and the hardness values increase to 83.23 HRA. However, the agglomeration phenomenon of the Cr phase and brittleness of the TiCr2 Laves phases easily led to a slight decrease in TRS (400.54 MPa).
Nonlinear phenomena of the planar and quasi-planar magnetoacoustic waves are considered. We focus on deriving of equations which govern nonlinear excitation of the non-wave motions by the intense sound in initially static gaseous plasma. The plasma is treated as an ideal gas with finite electrical conductivity permeated by a magnetic field orthogonal to the trajectories of gas particles. This introduces dispersion of a flow. Magnetoacoustic heating and streaming in the field of periodic and aperiodic magnetoacoustic perturbations are discussed, as well as generation of the magnetic perturbations by sound. Two cases, corresponding to magnetosound perturbations of low and high frequencies, are considered in detail.
The aim of this paper was to attain defect free, pure copper castings with the highest possible electrical conductivity. In this connection, the effect of magnesium additives on the structure, the degree of undercooling (ΔTα = Tα-Tmin, where Tα – the equilibrium solidification temperature, Tmin – the minimum temperature at the beginning of solidification), electrical conductivity, and the oxygen concentration of pure copper castings have been studied. The two magnesium doses have been investigated; namely 0.1 wt.% and 0.2 wt.%. A thermal analysis was performed (using a type-S thermocouple) to determine the cooling curves. The degree of undercooling and recalescence were determined from the cooling and solidification curves, whereas the macrostructure characteristics were conducted based on a metallographic examination. It has been shown that the reaction of Mg causes solidification to transform from exogenous to endogenous. Finally, the results of electrical conductivity have been shown as well as the oxygen concentration for the used Mg additives.