The results of testing of the selected group of wax mixtures used in the investment casting technology, are presented in the paper. The measurements of the kinetics of the mixtures shrinkage and changes of viscous-plastic properties as a temperature function were performed. The temperature influence on bending strength of wax mixtures was determined.
Light-weight Self-Compacting Concrete (LWSCC) might be the answer to the increasing construction requirements of slenderer and more heavily reinforced structural elements. However there are limited studies to prove its ability in real construction projects. In conjunction with the traditional methods, artificial intelligent based modeling methods have been applied to simulate the non-linear and complex behavior of concrete in the recent years. Twenty one laboratory experimental investigations on the mechanical properties of LWSCC; published in recent 12 years have been analyzed in this study. The collected information is used to investigate the relationship between compressive strength, elasticity modulus and splitting tensile strength in LWSCC. Analytically proposed model in ANFIS is verified by multi factor linear regression analysis. Comparing the estimated results, ANFIS analysis gives more compatible results and is preferred to estimate the properties of LWSCC.
In the last 20 years, a new meshless computational method has been developed that is called peridynamics. The method is based on the parallelized code. The subject of the study is the deformation of open-cell copper foams under dynamic compression. The computational model of virtual cellular material is considered. The skeleton structure of such a virtual cellular material can be rescaled according to requirements. The material of the skeleton is assumed as the oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper. The OFHC copper powder can be applied in additive manufacturing to produce the open-cell multifunctional structures, e.g., crush resistant heat exchangers, heat capacitors, etc. In considered peridynamic computations the foam skeleton is described with the use of an elastic-plastic model with isotropic hardening. The dynamic process of compression and crushing with different impact velocities is simulated.
This paper focuses on mechanical properties of self hardening moulding sands with furfuryl and alkyd binders. Elasticity as a new parameter of moulding sands is investigated. With the use of presented testing equipment, it is possible to determine force kinetics and deformation of moulding sand in real time. The need for this kind of study comes from the modern casting industry. New foundries can be characterized with high intensity of production which is correlated with high level of mechanization and automatization of foundry processes. The increasingly common use of manipulators in production of moulds and cores can lead to generation of new types of flaws, caused by breakage in moulds and cores which could occur during mould assembly. Hence it is required that moulds and cores have high resistance to those kinds of factors, attributing it with the phenomenon of elasticity. The article describes the theoretical basis of this property, presents methods of measuring and continues earlier research.
The constant growth of foundry modernization, mechanization and automation is followed with growing requirements for the quality and parameters of both moulding and core sands. Due to this changes it is necessary to widen the requirements for the parameters used for their quality evaluation by widening the testing of the moulding and core sands with the measurement of their resistance to mechanical deformation (further called elasticity). Following article covers measurements of this parameter in chosen moulding and core sands with different types of binders. It focuses on the differences in elasticity, bending strength and type of bond destruction (adhesive/cohesive) between different mixtures, and its connection to the applied bonding agent. Moulding and cores sands on which the most focus is placed on are primarily the self-hardening moulding sands with organic and inorganic binders, belonging to the group of universal applications (used as both moulding and core sands) and mixtures used in cold-box technology.
The paper presents the modelling measurement results of the load-displacement relation for scaffold stands and bracings. In the case of stands, there are two sections of curves, i.e. a straight-line and curvilinear section, and in the case of bracings, two straight line sections as well as one curvilinear section are distinguished. As a result of analyses, it is concluded that the sections which can be approximated by means of linear functions should be distinguished in graphs, if possible. On the one hand, this results from the evaluation methods of scaffold components. Nevertheless, the determination of elastic-linear scope of components’ operation is useful in engineering practice during computer calculations. Moreover, the method of determining an intersection point between functions, approximating tests results, along with analysis of the impact of polynomial degree, approximating the research results, on the time and effectiveness of the process of approximating functions selection, are all demonstrated in this article. The proposed method can prove useful in all science fields where curves obtained from any research (laboratory test, in situ test, numerical analysis) require approximation or replacement with a simpler description.
This paper investigates the influence of surface effects on free transverse vibration of piezoelectric nanowires (NWs). The dynamic model of the NW is tackled using nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory. By implementing this theory with consideration of both non-local effect and surface effect under simply support boundary condition, the natural frequencies of the NW are calculated. Also, a closed form solution is obtained in order to calculate fundamental buckling voltage. Finally, the effect of small scale effect on residual surface tension and critical electric potential is explored. The results can help to design piezo-NW based instruments.
Concrete is the most widely used construction material because of its specialty of being cast into any desired shape. The main requirements of earthquake resistant structures are good ductility and energy absorption capacity. Fiber reinforced concrete possesses high flexural and tensile strength, improved ductility, and high energy absorption over the conventional concrete in sustaining dynamic loads. The aim of this paper is to compare the properties of concrete beams in which three types of fibers are added individually. Steel fibers, polypropylene fibers and hybrid fibers were added to concrete in the weight ratio of four percentages in the preparation of four beam specimens. The fourth specimen did not contain fibers and acted as a control specimen. The dimensions of the beam specimens were 150 × 150 × 700 mm. The reinforced concrete beams of M30 grade concrete were prepared for casting and testing. Various parameters such as load carrying capacity, stiffness degradation, ductility characteristics and energy absorption capacity of FRC beams were compared with that of RC beams. The companion specimens were cast and tested to study strength properties and then the results were compared. All the beams were tested under three point bending under Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The results were evaluated with respect to modulus of elasticity, first crack load, ultimate load, and ultimate deflection. The test result shows that use of hybrid fiber improves the flexural performance of the reinforced concrete beams. The flexural behavior and stiffness of the tested beams were calculated, and compared with respect to their load carrying capacities. Comparison was also made with theoretical calculations in order to determine the load-deflection curves of the tested beams. Results of the experimental programme were compared with theoretical predictions. Based on the results of the experimental programme, it can be concluded that the addition of steel, polypropylene and hybrid fibers by 4% by weight of cement (but 2.14% by volume of cement) had the best effect on the stiffness and energy absorption capacity of the beams.
The purpose of this paper is to study the thermoviscoelastic interactions in a homogeneous, isotropic semi-infinite solid under two-temperature theory with heat source. The Kelvin-Voigt model of linear viscoelasticity which describes the viscoelastic nature of the material is used. The bounding plane surface of the medium is subjected to a non-Gaussian laser pulse. The generalized thermoelasticity theory with dual phase lags model is used to solve this problem. Laplace transform technique is used to obtain the general solution for a suitable set of boundary conditions. Some comparisons have been shown in figures to estimate the effects of the phase lags, viscosity, temperature discrepancy, laser-pulse and the laser intensity parameters on all the studied fields. A comparison was also made with the results obtained in the case of one temperature thermoelasticity theory.
This paper contains the full way of implementing a user-defined hyperelastic constitutive model into the finite element method (FEM) through defining an appropriate elasticity tensor. The Knowles stored-energy potential has been chosen to illustrate the implementation, as this particular potential function proved to be very effective in modeling nonlinear elasticity within moderate deformations. Thus, the Knowles stored-energy potential allows for appropriate modeling of thermoplastics, resins, polymeric composites and living tissues, such as bone for example. The decoupling of volumetric and isochoric behavior within a hyperelastic constitutive equation has been extensively discussed. An analytical elasticity tensor, corresponding to the Knowles stored-energy potential, has been derived. To the best of author's knowledge, this tensor has not been presented in the literature yet. The way of deriving analytical elasticity tensors for hyperelastic materials has been discussed in detail. The analytical elasticity tensor may be further used to develop visco-hyperelastic, nonlinear viscoelastic or viscoplastic constitutive models. A FORTRAN 77 code has been written in order to implement the Knowles hyperelastic model into a FEM system. The performace of the developed code is examined using an exemplary problem.