In the Fugleberget catchment area (Spitsbergen, Hornsund Fiord region) the growing season lasted 95 days, with growth beginning under the snow. In this time shoots of moss Calliergon stramineum reached a mean length of 19 mm and mean biomass of 0.593 mg dry weight. Annual primary production of moss communities amounts to 220-270 g dry weight per square meter per year. In the first year of destruction the dead plant material lost 30-45% of its initial value, after 10 years only ca 25% of the initial amount of organic matter was left.
The paper presents the statical research tests of rod bolt made of plastic with a length of 5.5 m, which were performed in a modern laboratory test facility at the Department of Underground Mining of the University of Science and Technology. Innovative The Self-excited Acoustic System (SAS) used to measure stress changes in the bolt support was characterized. The system can be used for the non-destructive evaluation of the strain of the bolt around the excavations as well as in tunnels. The aim of the study was to compare the re-sults recorded by two different measuring systems, thanks to which it will be possible to assess the load of long bolt support by means of the non-destructive method. The speed and simplicity of measurement, access to the sensors, accuracy of measurement and reading should be kept in mind in determining the load of rock bolt support . In addition, the possibility of damage to the sensor as a re-sult of technological or natural hazards should also be taken into account. In economic conditions, the „technical - balance laws of production”, which ex-cludes the use of load sensors on each bolt must be preserved. The use of indi-vidual load sensors of rock bolt support for the boundary state, allows appro-priate protection actions of the mining crew against sudden loss of excavation stability to be taken. The paper presents two basic effects used in the ultrasonic measurement sys-tem. The first result was the existence of stable limit cycle oscillations for posi-tive feedback. This effect is called the self-excited effect. The second effect is called the elasto-acoustic effect. It means that with the change of elastic stress-es in the material bring the change of the speed of propagation of the wave. In this connection, the propagation time between measuring heads is also changed. This effect manifests itself in the change in the oscillation frequency of the self-excited system. For this reason, by measuring the frequency of self-excited oscillation, it is possible to indirectly determine the level of effort of the tested material.
Adamussium jonkersi sp. nov. is described from the Late Oligocene Destruction Bay Formation, Wrona Buttress area, King George Island (South Shetlands), West Antarctica. The unit, characterized by volcanic sandstone, is a shallow marine succession deposited in a moderate- to high-energy environment. The thin-shelled pectinids, collected from the lower part of the unit, are preserved mostly as complete valves. Shell thickness, sculpture pattern and umbonal angle suggest a free-living, inactive swimming life habit.
The investigation results of the reclamation of spent moulding sands with furfuryl resin are presented in this paper. The reclamation process was performed in the secondary reclamation chamber of the REGMAS 1.5 vibratory reclaimer. 70 kg portions of moulding sands, previously subjected to the primary reclamation and dedusting, were used. The secondary reclamation was performed in two stages: the first consisted of determining the reclaimer intensity at various reclamation times (5 min, 10 min and 15 min) and various electrovibrator frequencies (40 Hz, 50 Hz and 60 Hz), the second consisted of determining the influence of additional crushing elements on the intensity of processes.
In the work was presented the results of studies concerns on the destructive mechanisms for forging tools used in the wheel forging process as well the laboratory results obtained on a specially constructed test items for testing abrasive wear and thermal fatigue. The research results of the forging tools shown that the dominant destructive mechanisms are thermal fatigue occurring in the initial the exploitation stage and abrasive wear, which occurs later, and is intensified effects of thermo-mechanical fatigue and oxidation process. In order to better analysis of phenomena associated with destructive mechanisms, the authors built a special test stands allow for a more complete analysis of each of the mechanisms separately under laboratory conditions, which correspond to the industrial forging processes. A comprehensive analysis of the forging tools confirmed by laboratory tests, showed the interaction between the thermal fatigue and abrasive wear, combined with the oxidation process. The obtained results showed that the process of oxidation and thermal fatigue, very often occur together with the mechanism of abrasive wear, creating a synergy effect. This causing the acceleration, the most visible and easily measurable process of abrasive wear.
The obtained results of heating of sand moulds with binders by means of a thermal radiation of liquid metal are presented in this study. Standard samples for measuring Rg made of the tested moulding sands were suspended at the lower part of the cover which was covering the crucible with liquid metal (cast iron), placed in the induction furnace. The authors own methodology was applied in investigations. The progressing of the samples surface layers heating process was determined as the heating time function. Samples of a few kinds of moulding sands with chemical binders were tested. Samples without protective coatings as well as samples with such coatings were tested. The influence of the thermal radiation on bending resistance of samples after their cooling was estimated. The influence of several parameters such as: time of heating, distance from the metal surface, metal temperature, application of coatings, were tested. A very fast loss of strength of moulding sands with organic binders was found, especially in cases when the distance between metal and sample surfaces was small and equaled to 10÷15 mm. Then, already after app. 15 seconds of the radiation (at Tmet=1400o C), the resistance decreases by nearly 70%. Generally, moulding sands with organic binders are losing their strength very fast, while moulding sands with water glass at first increase their strength and later slightly lose. The deposition of protective coatings increases the strength of the mould surface layers, however does not allow to retain this strength after the metal thermal radiation.
The results of investigations of thermal reclamation of spent moulding sands originating from an aluminum alloy foundry plant are presented in this paper. Spent sands were crushed by using two methods. Mechanical fragmentation of spent sand chunks was realized in the vibratory reclaimer REGMAS. The crushing process in the mechanical device was performed either with or without additional crushing-grinding elements. The reclaimed material obtained in this way was subjected to thermal reclamations at two different temperatures. It was found that a significant binder gathering on grain surfaces favors its spontaneous burning, even in the case when a temperature lower than required for the efficient thermal reclamation of furan binders is applied in the thermal reclaimer. The burning process, initiated by gas burners in the reclaimer chamber, generates favorable conditions for self-burning (at a determined amount of organic binders on grain surfaces). This process is spontaneously sustained and decreases the demand for gas. However, due to the significant amount of binder, this process is longer than in the case of reclaiming moulding sand prepared with fresh components.
The results of investigations of spent moulding sands taken from the mould at various distances from the surface of the produced casting, are presented in the paper. The casting mould was made with an application of the cooling system of the metal core in order to increase the cooling rate of the ladle casting. As temperature measurements in the mould indicated the heat flow from the metal did not create conditions for the complete burning of a moulding sand. The analysis was performed to find out changes of spent moulding sands caused by degradation and destruction processes of organic binders. Conditions occurring in the casting mould were discussed on the bases of testing: ignition losses, dusts contents, pH reactions and the surface morphology of the moulding sand samples. Factors limiting the effective mould degassing were pointed out. Operations, possible for realization, which can limit the reasons of a periodical occurrence of increased amounts of casting defects due to changing gas evolution rates being the result of the technological process, were also indicated.
The thermal reclamation process as a utilisation method of spent moulding and core sands is more costly than other reclamation methods, but in the majority of cases it simultaneously provides the best cleaning of mineral matrices from organic binders. Thus, the application of the thermal analysis methods (TG-DSC), by determining the temperature range within which a degradation followed by a destruction of bounded organic binders in moulding sands, can contribute to the optimisation of the thermal reclamation process and to the limiting its realisation costs. The thermal analysis results of furan resin, one of the most often applied binder in foundry practice, are presented in the hereby paper. The influence of the heating rate of the sample - placed in the thermal analyser - on its degradation and destruction process under oxygen-free (argon) and oxygen (air) conditions, were compared. The recorded TG and DSC curves were used for analysing these processes as the temperature as well as the time function. The obtained results were analysed with regard to determining the required temperature of the thermal reclamation of the investigated organic binder. The usefulness of the developed methodology was found out, however under conditions of meeting several essential requirements concerning the repeatability of performed analyses.
The paper presents possibility of using biodegradable materials as parts of moulding sands’ binders based on commonly used in foundry practice resins. The authors focus on thermal destruction of binding materials and thermal deformation of moulding sands with tested materials. All the research is conducted for the biodegradable material and two typical resins separately. The point of the article is to show if tested materials are compatible from thermal destruction and thermal deformation points of view. It was proved that tested materials characterized with similar thermal destruction but thermal deformation of moulding sands with those binders was different.
This article presents the peculiarities and methodical principles for designing the technologies and forms of organization of the construction liquidation cycle for typical unified series of residential buildings. The systematic approach for developing the necessary settings and indicators of the structure of a complex technological process for disassembling, destructing and demolishing of structural elements and buildings in general is given. The multigraph is created for the closed walk model of correlation of the parameters of the organizational and technological solutions of the construction liquidation cycle.