In order to identify the influence of different Mn, Cd, V and Zr content on the properties of Al-Cu casting alloys in hydraulic valves, orthogonal test methods were used to prepare alloy test bars with different elements and contents. Tensile tests were performed on the test bars so obtained. The microstructure of alloys with different compositions is studied. The results show that adding approximately 0.4% of Mn can not only form a strengthening phase but also reduce the excessive segregation of the matrix along the grain boundary. A Cd content of 0.2% can promote the formation of micro Cd spheres in the softer aluminum matrix. Hard spots increase the wear resistance of the material; however, an excess of Cd will cause element segregation and deteriorate the mechanical properties of the valve body. Zr and V refine the grains in the alloy; however, an excess of these elements will lead to a large area of segregation. If proper heat treatment is lacking, the mechanical properties of the valve body deteriorate.
The paper presents the cellular automaton (CA) model for tracking the development of dendritic structure in non-equilibrium solidification conditions of binary alloy. Thermal, diffusion and surface phenomena have been included in the mathematical description of solidification. The methodology for calculating growth velocity of the liquid-solid interface based on solute balance, considering the distribution of the alloy component in the neighborhood of moving interface has been proposed. The influence of solidification front curvature on the equilibrium temperature was determined by applying the Gibbs Thomson approach. Solute and heat transfer equations were solved using the finite difference method assuming periodic boundary conditions and Newton cooling boundary condition at the edges of the system. The solutal field in the calculation domain was obtained separately for solid and liquid phase. Numerical simulations were carried out for the Al-4 wt.% Cu alloy at two cooling rates 15 K/s and 50 K/s. Microstructure images generated on the basis of calculations were compared with actual structures of castings. It was found that the results of the calculations are agreement in qualitative terms with the results of experimental research. The developed model can reproduce many morphological features of the dendritic structure and in particular: generating dendritic front and primary arms, creating, extension and coarsening of secondary branches, interface inhibition, branch fusion, considering the coupled motion and growth interaction of crystals.
Al-4.5Cu alloys are widely used in aerospace industries due to their low weight and high mechanical properties. This group of aluminium alloys is known as 2xx series and exhibits the highest mechanical properties however this alloy is known to suffer from feedability and high tendency for hot tearing. Al-Si alloys (3xx) have improved fluidity and better feedability particularly by several modifications such as Ti, B or Sr. Eutectic temperature is decreased and mechanical properties can be enhanced. Yet, the strength values of this alloy group cannot reach the values of 2xx series. Therefore, in this study, the effect of Ag addition on the fluidity of Al-4.5Cu alloy has been investigated. Standard size spiral mould was used. The casting temperature was selected to be 770oC. Five castings were made and Weibull statistical approach was used to evaluate the results. In addition, coating of the die with BN was also investigated. It was found that Ag addition and BN coating of the die revealed the most reproducible, reliable and high fluidity values.
Al-CuO is a thermite material exhibiting the exothermic reaction only when aluminum melts. For wide spread of its application, the reaction temperature needs to be reduced in addition to the enhancement of total reaction energy. In the present study, a thermite nanocomposite with a large contact area between Al and CuO was fabricated in order to lower the exothermic reaction temperature and to improve the reactivity. A cryomilling process was performed to achieve the nanostructure, and the effect of composition on the microstructure and its reactivity was studied in detail. The microstructure was characterized using SEM and XRD, and the thermal property was analyzed using DSC. The results show that as the molar ratio between Al and CuO varies, the fraction of uniform nanocomposite structure was changed affecting the exothermic reaction characteristics.
The article presents the results of research concerning AlCu4MgSi alloy ingots produced using horizontal continuous casting process under variable conditions of casting speed and cooling liquid flow through the crystallizer. The mechanical properties and structure of the obtained ingots were correlated with the process parameters. On the basis of the obtained results, it has been shown that depending on the cooling rate and the intensity of convection during solidification, significant differences in the mechanical properties and structure and of the ingots can occur. The research has shown that, as the casting speed and the flow rate of the cooling liquid increase, the hardness of the test samples decreases, while their elongation increases, which is related to the increase of the average grain size. Also, the morphology of the intermetallic phases precipitations lattice, as well as the centerline porosity and dendrite expansion, significantly affect the tensile strength and fracture mechanism of the tested ingots.
In this work, the effect of the microstructure on corrosion behavior of selected Mg- and Al-based as cast alloys, was evaluated. The electrochemical examinations were carried out, and then a morphology of corrosion products formed due to local polarization on materials surface, was analyzed. It was documented that the presence of Mg2Si phase plays an important role in the corrosion course of Mg-based alloy. A selective etching was observed in sites of Mg2Si precipitates having “Chinese script”- like morphology. Analogous situation was found for Al-based alloy, where the key role was played by cathodic θ-CuAl2 phase.