Investment casting combined with the additive manufacturing technology enables production of the thin-walled elements, that are geometrically complex, precise and can be easy commercialized. This paper presents design of aluminium alloy honeycombs, which are characterized with light structure, internal parallel oriented channels and suitable stiffness. Based on 3D printed pattern the mould was prepared from standard ceramic material subjected subsequently to appropriate heat treatment. Into created mould cavity with intricate and susceptible structure molten AC 44200 aluminium alloy was poured under low pressure. Properly designed gating system and selected process parameters enabled to limit the shrinkage voids, porosities and misruns. Compression examination performed in two directions showed different mechanisms of cell deformation. Characteristic plateau region of stress-strain curves allowed to determine absorbed energy per unit volume, which was 485 or 402 J/mm3 depending on load direction. Elaborated technology will be applied for the production of honeycomb based elements designated for energy absorption capability.
The anatomy of the human temporal bone is complex and, therefore, poses unique challenges for students. Furthermore, temporal bones are frequently damaged from handling in educational settings due to their inherent fragility. This report details the production of a durable physical replica of the adult human temporal bone, manufactured using 3D printing technology. The physical replica was printed from a highly accurate virtual 3D model generated from CT scans of an isolated temporal bone. Both the virtual and physical 3D models accurately reproduced the surface anatomy of the temporal bone. Therefore, virtual and physical 3D models of the temporal bone can be used for educational purposes in order to supplant the use of damaged or otherwise fragile human temporal bones.
This paper presents the results of experiments on metallization of plastic elements produced using 3D printing technology from the light-hardened resins. The obtained coatings were bimetallic (Cu/Ni). The first step of metallization was the electroless deposition of copper. The second one was electrodeposition of nickel on the previously prepared copper substrate. The parameters of 3D prints preparation and metallization processes were deeply investigated. The etching of plastics substrates and duration of electroless metallization of 3D prints by copper were analyzed. In the next step the influence of nickel electrodeposition time was investigated. The coating were analyzed by XRD method and morphology of surface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thickness of coatings was calculated based on mass differences and measured by using optical microscopy method. The optimal parameters for both processes were specified.
The densification behavior of H13 tool steel powder by dual speed laser scanning strategy have been characterized for selective laser melting process, one of powder bed fusion based metal 3d printing. Under limited given laser power, the laser re-melting increases the relative density and hardness of H13 tool steel with closing pores. The single melt-pool analysis shows that the pores are located on top area of melt pool when the scanning speed is over 400 mm/s while the low scanning speed of 200 mm/s generates pores beneath the melt pool in the form of keyhole mode with the high energy input from the laser. With the second laser scanning, the pores on top area of melt pools are efficiently closed with proper dual combination of scan speed. However pores located beneath the melt pools could not be removed by second laser scanning. When each layer of 3d printing are re-melted, the relative density and hardness are improved for most dual combination of scanning. Among the scan speed combination, the 600 mm/s by 400 mm/s leads to the highest relative density, 99.94 % with hardness of 53.5 HRC. This densification characterization with H13 tool steel laser re-melting can be efficiently applied for tool steel component manufacturing via metal 3d printing.
The paper presents an innovative method of creating the layered castings. The innovation relies on application the 3D printing insert obtaining in SLM (selective laser melting) method. This type of scaffold insert made from pure Ti powder, was placed into mould cavity directly before pouring by grey cast iron. In result of used method was obtained grey cast iron casting with surface layer reinforced by titanium carbides. In range of studies were carried out metallographic researches using light microscope and scanning electron microscope, microhardness measurements and abrasive wear resistance. On the basis of obtaining results was stated that there is a possibility of reinforcing surface layer of the grey cast iron casting by using 3D printing scaffold insert in the method of mould cavity preparation. Moreover there was a local increase in hardness and abrasive wear resistance in spite of the precipitation of titanium carbides in surface layer of grey cast iron. While the usable properties of composite surface layer obtained in result of use of the method presented in the paper, strongly depend of dimensions of scaffold insert, mainly parameters Re and Ri.