The pharmacokinetics of a diclofenac sodium was investigated in swine. A single intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injection of 5% diclofenac sodium (concentration = 2.5 mg · kg-1) was administered to 8 healthy pigs according to a two-period crossover design. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis with DAS2.1.1 software. After a single i.v. administration, the main pharmacokinetic parameters of diclofenac sodium injection in swine were as follows: the elimination half-time (T1/2β) was 1.32±0.34 h; the area under the curve (AUC) was (55.50±5.50 μg · mL-1 h; the mean residence time (MRT) was 1.60±0.28 h; the apparent volume of distribution (Vd) was 0.50±0.05 L · kg-1; and the body clearance (CLB) was 0.26±0.04 L · (h · kg)-1. After the single i.m. administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: peak time (Tmax) was 1.19±0.26 h; and peak concentration (Cmax) was 11.61±5.99 μg mL-1. The diclofenac sodium has the following pharmacokinetic characteristics in swine: rapid absorption and elimination; high peak concentration; and bioavailability.
Nano-sized yttria (Y2O3) powders were synthesized by a polymer solution route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as an organic carrier. The PVA polymer affected the dispersion of yttrium ions in precursor sol. In this study, three kinds of PVA polymer (different molecular weight) were applied for synthesis of yttria powder. The PVA type as well as calcination temperature had a strongly influence on the particle morphology. Single crystal nano wire particles were observed at the temperature of polymer burn out range and the size was dependent on the PVA type. The stable, fully crystallized yttria powder was obtained through the calcination at 800°C for 1 h. The yttria powder prepared with the high weight PVA (MW: 153,000) revealed a particle size of 30 nm with a surface area of 18.8 m2/g.
U-type ferrite typified by Ba4Co2Fe36O60 is used as a RAM (Radar Absorbing Materials) in the X-band (8-12 GHz). Ba4Co2Fe36O60 is known to have a complex crystal structure, which makes it difficult to obtain single phase and have low reproducibility. Previously known U-type ferrites have been fabricated based on a ceramic process that mixing (by a ball mill), calcining, grinding, binder mixing, drying, sieving, pressing and sintering. In contrast, the process of preparing the powder by the sol-gel method and its heat-treating is advantageous in that it can reduce the process steps and the required time. In addition, the precise stoichiometric control by the sol-gel method can effectively evaluate the effect of added or substituted elements. In this study investigates the crystal structure of Ba4Co2Fe36O60 synthesized by the sol-gel method and the morphology of U-type ferrite nano-powders according to various heat treatment conditions. Analysis of the crystal structure is used for XRD. Morphology and size are observed by SEM. In addition, VSM is performed to confirm the change of magnetic properties according to various heat treatment conditions.
Self-biting disease occurs in most farmed fur animals in the world. The mechanism and rapid detection method of this disease has not been reported. We applied bulked sergeant analysis (BSA) in combination with RAPD method to analyze a molecular genetic marker linked with self-biting trait in mink group. The molecular marker was converted into SCAR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) marker for rapid detection of this disease. A single RAPD marker A10 amplified a specific band of 1000bp in self-biting minks. The sequences of the bands exhibited 73% similarity to the Canis Brucella. SCAR and LAMP marker were designed for the specific fragment of RAPD marker A10 and validated in 30 self-biting minks and 30 healthy minks. c2 test showed difference (p<0.05) with SCAR and significant difference (p<0.01) with LAMP in the detection rate between the two groups, but LAMP method was more accurate than SCAR method. This indicated that LAMP can be used as a positive marker to detect self-biting disease in minks.
This study proposes a surface profile and roughness measurement system for a fibre-optic interconnect based on optical interferometry. On the principle of Fizeau interferometer, an interference fringe is formed on the fibre end-face of the fibre-optic interconnect, and the fringe pattern is analysed using the Fast Fourier transform method to reconstruct the surface profile. However, as the obtained surface profile contains some amount of tilt, a rule for estimating this tilt value is developed in this paper. The actual fibre end-face surface profile is obtained by subtracting the estimated tilt amount from the surface profile, as calculated by the Fast Fourier transform method, and the corresponding surface roughness can be determined. The proposed system is characterized by non-contact measurement, and the sample is not coated with a reflector during measurement. According to the experimental results, the difference between the roughness measurement result of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and the measurement result of this system is less than 3 nm.
As-cast Mg-6Li-0.3Zn-0.6Y and Mg-6Li-1.2Zn-1.2Y (wt%) alloys were prepared and extruded at 260 oC with an extrusion ratio of 25. The microstructure and mechanical behavior of as-cast and extruded alloys are reported and discussed. The results show that Mg-6Li-1.2Zn- 1.2Y alloy is composed of α-Mg, β-Li, and W-Mg3Zn3Y2 phases while Mg-6Li-0.3Zn-0.6Y alloy contains α-Mg, β-Li, W-Mg3Zn3Y2 phase and X-Mg12ZnY. After hot extrusion, the microstructure of specimens is refined and the average grains size of extruded alloys is 15 μm. Dynamic recrystallization occurs during the extrusion, leading to grain refinement of test alloys. Both the strength and elongation of test alloys are improved by extrusion. The extruded Mg-6Li-0.3Zn-0.6Y alloy possesses an ultimate strength of 225 MPa with an elongation of 18% while the strength and elongation of Mg-6Li-1.2Zn-1.2Y alloy are 206 MPa and 28%, respectively. The X-phase in Mg-6Li-0.3Zn- 0.6Y is beneficial to the improvement of strength, but will lead to the decrease of ductility.