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Abstract

The paper has presented the results of theoretical studies and experimental tests of the plastic deformation of multi-layered Ti/Al/Mg specimens. Theoretical studies were carried out using the Forge2011® computer program. Physical modeling, on the other hand, was performed using the Gleeble3800 simulator. Cuboidal specimens were cut off from the plates obtained in the explosive welding method. Based on the obtained investigation results it has been found non uniform deformation of the particular layer as a result their different value of flow stress.
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Abstract

The subject of the study was the production and characterization of three ceramic-metal graded composites, which differed in addition of the metallic phase. The following composites systems were investigated: Al2O3-Mo, Al2O3-Cu, Al2O3-W. Composites were produced by centrifugal slip casting method. This technique combines the classic casting of the slurry into porous molds with the action of centrifugal force. As a result, sleeve-shaped shapes with a metallic phase gradient were obtained. X-ray phase analysis have not revealed new phases in the produced composites. The type of metallic phase and its distribution in the ceramic matrix influenced the hardness of the produced composites.
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Abstract

Using a highly sensitive and precise apparatus, series of spatial movements of human cervical segments (C3/C4) were measured. They followed cyclic varied pure torques for axial rotation, lateral flexion, and flexion-extension in the presence of axially directed preloads as running parameter, whose force lines were shifted over the segments. By successive resections of the uncovertebral and zygapophysial joints as well as ligamental structures, the reach of these guiding structures for segmental kinematics and stiffness could be evaluated. For the first time, the biomechanical significance of the uncovertebral joints could be substantiated. In axial rotation and in lateral bending, the instantaneous helical axis (IHA) was found to be not stationary. Its position depended on the size of the rotational angle. The ensemble of the skew IHA formed a ruled surface with a waist. Torque and unit vector of the IHA were found to be parallel only for flexion-extension. In this case, all four joints were in guiding function, whereas in axial rotation and lateral flexion the joints alternated with each other. IHA included with torque Tz(t) for axial rotation ≈+30deg, and with torque Tx(t) ≈#25;−30deg: These motions were coupled. Resection of all ligaments did hardly influence the kinematical structure.
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