Stereological description of dispersed microstructure is not an easy task and remains the subject of continuous research. In its practical aspect, a correct stereological description of this type of structure is essential for the analysis of processes of coagulation and spheroidisation, or for studies of relationships between structure and properties. One of the most frequently used methods for an estimation of the density Nv and size distribution of particles is the Scheil - Schwartz – Saltykov method. In this article, the authors present selected methods for quantitative assessment of ductile iron microstructure, i.e. the Scheil - Schwartz – Saltykov method, which allows a quantitative description of three-dimensional sets of solids using measurements and counts performed on two-dimensional cross-sections of these sets (microsections) and quantitative description of three-dimensional sets of solids by X-ray computed microtomography, which is an interesting alternative for structural studies compared to traditional methods of microstructure imaging since, as a result, the analysis provides a three-dimensional imaging of microstructures examined.