The main objective of the study was to evaluate if macrophytes structure and trophic status of dam reservoir Kraśnik on a small lowland river Wyżnica are determined by phosphorous loadings. Studies were conducted seasonally in May, July and October during the years 2008-2009. Samples were taken at four sites: Site 1 - inflow of the Wyżnica River to pre-dam, Site 2 − pre-dam, Site 3 − dam reservoir and Site 4 - outflow of the Wyżnica River from dam reservoir. Physical and chemical parameters (temperature, Secchi disc depth, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total suspension, chlorophyll-a, TP and P-PO4) were measured in water samples. Together with water parameters there were estimated biomass of phytoplankton and species composition and biomass of emergent, floating-leaved and submerged macrophytes. Concentrations of TP, chlorophyll-a and Secchi disc depth were used to calculate trophic state index of Carlsson for dam reservoir and its pre-dam. Based on mean water current, mean residence time of water in dam reservoir and concentrations of TP and P-PO4 loadings (g m-2) flowing into dam reservoir with the Wyżnica River were calculated. The results showed visible negative effect of phosphorous loadings on both macrophytes composition and trophic state of the reservoir. The marked changes concerned soft vegetation. High P loadings (7.74 g m-2 of TP and 6.03 g m-2 P-PO4) during the spring of 2008 caused the disappearance of characeans meadows. In 2009, the presence of rigid hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum L.), the species typical for eutrophic lakes was noted. This unrooted submerged plant uptakes dissolved orthophosphates directly from the water column. Values of Carlsson index (51.4 ≤ TSI ≤ 68.2) indicate the eutrophic state of dam reservoir Kraśnik. During summer season in dam reservoir there were observed algal blooms (biomass of phytoplankton exceed 10 mg WW dm-3) and low water transparency (Secchi disc depth ranged from 0.4 to 0.65 m). During the two-year studies in dam reservoir Kraśnik a high reduction of P loadings, mostly dissolved orthophosphates was observed. Dependently on season, reduction of P-PO4 loadings ranged from 52% (July 2008) up to 91% (May 2009). The reduction of TP was lower and reached values from 15% (May 2008) to 48% (July 2009).
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