The paper presents a detailed description of one of the newest methods of vacuum saturation of reinforcing preforms in gypsum molds. As an appropriate selection of the infiltration time is a crucial problem during realization of this process, aim of the analysis shown in the paper is to present methods of selection of subatmospheric pressure application time, a sequence of lowering and increasing pressure, as well as examining influence of structure of reinforcing preforms on efficiency of this process. To realize the aim, studies on infiltration of reinforcing preforms made of a corundum sinter of various granulation of sintered particles with a model alloy were conducted. The infiltration process analysis was carried out in two stages. The first stage consisted in investigation of influence of lengthening of sucking off air from the reinforcing preforms on efficiency of this process. In the second stage, an analysis of influence of a two-staged infiltration process on saturation of the studied materials was conducted. Because the studied preforms were of similar porosity, the obtained differences of the saturation level of particular preforms have shown, that the saturation process is influenced mostly by size of pores present in the reinforcement. Because of these differences, each reinforcement type requires individual selection of time and sequence of the saturation process. For reinforcements of higher pore diameter, it is sufficient to simply increase air sucking off time to improve the saturation, while for reinforcement of smaller pore diameter, it is a better solution to apply the two-staged process of sucking off air. Application of the proposed analysis method allows not only obtaining composite castings of higher quality, but also economical optimization of the whole process.
This article presents the preparation of composite casts made using the technology of precise casting by the method of melted models. The composite was reinforced with the ceramic sinter from Al2O3 particle shaped in a printed polystyrene female mould, which was fired together with precured ceramics. The resulting ceramic preform, after being saturated with paraffin and after the filling system is installed, was filled with liquid moulding sand and fired together with the mould. The reinforcement was saturated by means of the counter-pressure exerting action on the metal column, being a resultant of pressures inside and outside the chamber. The preliminary assessment showed no apparent defects in the shape of the cast. The casting was measured and the figures were compared with the dimensions of the matrix in which the reinforcing preform was made, the preform after firing and after saturation with paraffin. The results were presented in a table and dimensional deviations were determined. The composite casting was subjected to metallographic tests, which excluded any porous defects or damage to the reinforcement. It can therefore be said that, according to the predictions resulting from the previous calculations, the pressure values used allowed for complete filling of the reinforcement capillaries. The proposed method is therefore suitable for the preparation of precision composite castings with complex shapes.
The effect of plastic deformation process on the dissolution rate of biocompatible Mg alloys was investigated. Two biocompatible MgLi1Ca0,2Zn1 and MgLi1Ca1Zn1 alloys were selected for the study. The alloys were deformed on a 100T press at a temperature of 350°C by conventional extrusion and by the equal channel angular extrusion process (ECAE). The grain size analysis showed a high degree of the grain refinement from approximately 110 mm in the initial state to 2.8 mm after the 3rd pass of the ECAE process. Compared to as-cast state, the degree of strengthening has increased after plastic forming. The results of biodegradation tests have shown a significant increase in corrosion rate after both conventional extrusion and ECAE, although after subsequent ECAE passes, this rate was observed to slightly decrease in the MgLi1Ca1Zn1 alloy. Based on the results of macro- and microstructure examinations, the corrosion progress in samples after the extrusion process was described.
Refinement is one of the most energy consuming technological process, aimed at obtaining mineral raw materials of the proper grain size. Cast structural elements such as jaws or hammers in crushing machines operate under conditions of an intensive wear. The data indicate that 80 % of failures of machines and devices is caused by wearing of rubbing surfaces. This problem became the subject of several scientific and industrial investigations carried out in the whole world in order to produce materials ultra- wear resistant. Methods allowing to obtain wear resistant composite castings are discussed in the hereby paper. Within the performed research microstructures of the produced composite zones were presented and the comparative analysis with regard to mechanical and functional properties of local composite reinforcements in relation to the commercial alloys of increased wear resistance was performed. The results show almost twenty five times increase in wear resistance compared to manganese cast steel containing 18 % Mn.
In order to increase wear resistance cast steel casting the TiC-Fe-Cr type composite zones were fabricated. These zones were obtained by means of in situ synthesis of substrates of the reaction TiC with a moderator of a chemical composition of white cast iron with nickel of the Ni-Hard type 4. The synthesis was carried out directly in the mould cavity. The moderator was applied to control the reactive infiltration occurring during the TiC synthesis. The microstructure of composite zones was investigated by electron scanning microscopy, using the backscattered electron mode. The structure of composite zones was verified by the X-ray diffraction method. The hardness of composite zones, cast steel base alloy and the reference samples such as white chromium cast iron with 14 % Cr and 20 % Cr, manganese cast steel 18 % Mn was measured by Vickers test. The wear resistance of the composite zone and the reference samples examined by ballon-disc wear test. Dimensionally stable composite zones were obtained containing submicron sizes TiC particles uniformly distributed in the matrix. The macro and microstructure of the composite zone ensured three times hardness increase in comparison to the cast steel base alloy and one and a half times increase in comparison to the white chromium cast iron 20 % Cr. Finally ball-on-disc wear rate of the composite zone was five times lower than chromium white cast iron containing 20 % Cr.
Traffic related noise is currently considered as an environmental pollution. Paper presents results of multidirectional study attempting to serve urban traffic without the need to erect noise barriers interfering urban space. Initial concept of the road expansion included construction of 1000 m of noise barriers dividing city space. Improvement in the acoustic conditions after construction completion is possible due to the applied noise protection measures: vehicle speed limit, smooth of traffic flow, use of road pavement of reduced noise emission and the technical improvement of the tramway.