Preliminary results of field investigations and analysis of air photos of the Tjörn Valley region (Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Spitsbergen) are presented. The youngest, Quaternary deposits and landforms were mapped. Reconstruction of the last advance and retreat of the Tjörndals Glacier is also described.
Results of geological interpretation of air photos from selected parts of southern Spitsbergen are presented. Quaternary and some older landforms and deposits distinguished during the photointerpretation are described on the basis of their discrimination features, as well as origin and spatial realtions. On this ground a code for interpretation of relief elements in polar areas was prepared. A geological interpretation of air photos completed by absolute datings of different deposits enabled to connect studied landforms with the Late Quaternary main glacial episodes. Sea and glacier extents in the northwestern Sörkapp Land, from the Wedel Jarlsberg Land Glaciation (Saale) to the Little Ice Age (Holocene) are presented.
Landforms of aeolian origin from western Sörkapp Land, Spitsbergen, are described. Development of aeolian hillocks, sand banks and drifts as well as of aeolian covers on marine beaches and permafrost hillocks is discussed in connection with conditions of transport and deposition. Horizons of fossil organic matter found in some forms prove their persistence.
The most popular field methods of measurements of raised marine beach altitudes used by geomorphologists are presented. Compared data from clisimeter routes, altimeter routes and from readings from a photogeological map and directly from air photos compose the profiles. Advantages and disavantages of each method are discussed.
Field mapping and analysis of air photos enabled to prepare a photogeological map of Treskelen-Hyrnefjellet-Kruseryggen area in scale of 1:10,000. Slope, glacial and nival landforms and sediments, and ten raised marine beaches were distinguished. Morphogenetic evolution of the area is also presented, with discussion of probable glacier advances and land uplift during the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene.
Mapping and analysis of air photos enabled preparation of a photogeological map of the Hansbreen-Sofiekammen region in a scale of 1 : 10,000. Glacial, slope and marine landforms and sediments were distinguished. Supplied with thermoluminescence and radiocarbon data, a morphogenetic evolution of the area could be presented. Four Pleistocene and Holocene glacier advances were distinguished. Seven raised marine beaches result from the Pleistocene and the Holocene uplift of the land.
We propose contents of topographic maps for polar areas to be supplemented with such landforms that are easily identified during the analysis of air or terrestial photographs. Such landforms include rock outliers (monadnocks), glacial boundaries, a beach and thick mantles of tundra vegetation. All these landforms create together with fluvial and lake patterns a system of elements that enable location of users and therefore make preparation of other (e.g. geological, geomorphological or glaciological) maps possible.
Thermoluminescence datings of glacial and marine sediments from Sörkapp Land, southern Spitsbergen enabled to limit the Late and Middle Pleistocene glacial events in this area. Sediments of raised beaches at 15—18, 30—38 and 42—56 m a.s.l. in Breinesflya were TL dated for 63, 68 and 87 ka respectively. Four other dates from Lisbetdalen, Slaklidalen and Sergeijevskardet proved two glacial advances during the Sörkapp Land ( = Wiirm) Glaciation. named the Lisbetdalen Stage (47 and 41 ka) and the Slaklidalen Stage (28 and 22 ka). Glacial sediments on slopes of Gavrilovfjellet and Strupryggen were dated for 141 and 217 ka respectively. These dates prove the glaciers of the Wedel Jarlsberg Land (= Riss) Glaciation occupied a considerably larger area in southern Spitsbergen than the glaciers of the following Sorkapp Land Glaciation.