I n t r o d u c t i o n: Co-occurrence of physical and cognitive dysfunctions contribute to functional decline and a gradual loss of independence. O b j e c t i v e s: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between global cognitive impairment and physical mobility in older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Ma t e r i a l a n d Me t h o d s: A total of 800 older adults were recruited (653 with normal cognitive functioning and 147 participants with MCI). Motor performance was measured with the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Cognitive functions were evaluated using Mini- Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE-III). R e s u l t s: ACE-III scores were associated with the TUG test performance in older adults (with and without MCI), but not with 6MWT results. The overall score in ACE-III and its subscales, i.e. a) memory and fluency in the MCI group and in the total group, and b) fluency in the control group, were associated with TUG aft er adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, medication use, depressive symptoms, hypertension, coronary artery disease and diabetes. In the case of the 6MWT test results, only the ACE-III fluency subscale scores and not the overall ACE-III score were associated with them. C o n c l u s i o n s: Global cognitive function, verbal fluency and memory were independently associated with the TUG. ACE-III, being a more extensive testing tool than MMSE, made it possible to show the relationship between global cognition and motor skills.
The paper presents the development procedures for both virtual 3D-CAD and material models of fractured segments of human spine formulated with the use of computer tomography (CT) and rapid prototyping (RP) technique. The research is a part of the project within the framework of which a database is developed, comprising both 3D-CAD and material models of segments of thoracic-lumbar spine in which one vertebrae is subjected to compressive fracture for a selected type of clinical cases. The project is devoted to relocation and stabilisation procedures of fractured vertebrae made with the use of ligamentotaxis method. The paper presents models developed for five patients and, for comparison purposes, one for a normal spine. The RP material models have been built basing on the corresponding 3D-CAD ones with the use of fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. 3D imaging of spine segments in terms of 3D-CAD and material models allows for the analysis of bone structures, classification of clinical cases and provides the surgeons with the data helpful in choosing the proper way of treatment. The application of the developed models to numerical and experimental simulations of relocation procedure of fractured vertebra is planned.