Production of spheroidal graphite cast iron is today quite mastered technology. There are many methods achieving the nodular graphite morphology. Each of these methods have specific characteristics and requirements to technical support, properties and the type of applied modifier. Selection of the spheroidization method is dependent on foundry disposition, production character, economic balance, quality requirements, etc. In case of centrifugally casting the core, which fills body and neck of the roll, is created by ductile iron. Considering the sophisticated production of centrifugally cast rolls for hot rolling mills it is necessary to ensure a high reproducibility and reliability of ductile cast iron production quality in the bulk range of 9-18 t per tapping. These conditions are in the Roll Foundry in Vítkovicke Slevarny, spol. s r.o. provided and verified mastered overpour method and the newly injection of cored wire in the melt.
The new topology of three-winding welding transformer is proposed. Each secondary winding is connected in parallel through the separate bridge rectifier to the welding arc. The main feature of the proposed device is parallel working of two secondary windings with different rated voltage. The advantage is nonlinear transformation ratio of current that provides unprecedented power efficiency. The self- and mutual leakage inductances, which are important in power conversion, are calculated by 2D FEA model. The operational current of the device is modelled numerically via P-Spice simulator. The proposed topology is up to 30% more power effective than conventional welding transformer provided that the leakage inductances of primary and secondary windings are correctly fitted. This transformer is used for manual arc welding.
Beamforming is an advanced signal processing technique used in sensor arrays for directional signal transmission or reception. The paper deals with a system based on an ultrasound transmitter and an array of receivers, to determine the distance to an obstacle by measuring the time of flight and – using the phase beamforming technique to process the output signals of receivers for finding the direction from which the reflected signal is received – locates the obstacle. The embedded beam-former interacts with a PID-based line follower robot to improve performance of the line follower navigation algorithm by detecting and avoiding obstacles. The PID (proportional-integral-derivative) algorithm is also typically used to control industrial processes. It calculates the difference between a measured value and a desired set of points, then attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the output. The overall navigation system combines a PID-based trajectory follower with a spatial-temporal filter (beamformer) that uses the output of an array of sensors to extract signals received from an obstacle in a particular direction in order to guide an autonomous vehicle or a robot along a safe path.
Magnetic circuits of electromagnetic energy converters, such as electrical machines, are nowadays highly utilized. This proposition is intrinsic for the magnetic as well as the electric circuit and depicts that significant enhancements of electrical machines are difficult to achieve in the absence of a detailed understanding of underlying effects. In order to improve the properties of electrical machines the accurate determination of the locally distributed iron losses based on idealized model assumptions solely is not sufficient. Other loss generating effects have to be considered and the possibility being able to distinguish between the causes of particular loss components is indispensable. Parasitic loss mechanisms additionally contributing to the total losses originating from field harmonics, non-linear material behaviour, rotational magnetizations, and detrimental effects caused by the manufacturing process or temperature, are not explicitly considered in the common iron-loss models, probably even not specifically contained in commonly used calibration factors. This paper presents a methodology being able to distinguish between different loss mechanisms and enables to individually consider particular loss mechanisms in the model of the electric machine. A sensitivity analysis of the model parameters can be performed to obtain information about which decisive loss origin for which working point has to be manipulated by the electromagnetic design or the control of the machine.
Abstract We aimed to produce tissue cultures and plant regeneration from endangered Crocus species: C. scepusiensis, C. tommasinianus, C. vittatus (“Verni” series of the genus) and C. banaticus. For initiation of cultures we used a plant growth regulator (PGR) combination used for in vitro culture of saffron and its relatives: 10 mg L-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 1 mg L-1 6-benzyladenine (BA). Shoot tips of young seedlings (C. scepusiensis) and corms (for the rest of species) were used as explants. C. scepusiensis explants developed into organogenic calli. On media with decreased NAA and with or without increased BA concentration, calli produced stigma-like structures and/or shoots and whole plants. In the other species, callus initiation medium induced callus formation with abundant somatic embryos. In C. tommasinianus, embryos developed shoots when auxin content of medium was decreased. In C. banaticus, a decrease of auxin with or without an increase in cytokinin content led to shoot or whole plant regeneration, as in C. scepusiensis. In the case of C. vittatus and C. banaticus, initiation and/or maintenance of cultures on indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and increased sucrose concentration stimulated whole plant regeneration and in vitro cormlet development. C. scepusiensis and the rest of cultures (organogenic vs. embryogenic) differed at the biochemical level: C. scepusiensis cultures had higher (yet still low) enzymatic antioxidant (catalase, peroxidase) activities. With respect to catalase isoenzyme patterns, C. banaticus was different from the rest of cultures, demonstrating its distinct taxonomical position. Besides germplasm preservation use of the present cultures, they have a potential biotechnological value.