This paper presents a study of the effect of the modification and cooling rate on the grain count α(Al) in the Al-5Cu alloy. Research was performed on castings with walls thickness between 3 mm and 25 mm. Cooling curves were recorded to determine the cooling rate and the degree of undercooling at the beginning of solidification. It has been shown that cooling rate increases exponentially as the wall thickness of casting decreases. Moreover it has been demonstrated that the cooling rate of castings changes within a wide range (21ºC/s - 1ºC/s) when the wall thickness changes from 3 up to 25 mm. Metallographic examinations revealed primary grains (primary α(Al) grains). The paper show that the relationship between the grain count and the degree of undercooling (for non-modified and modified alloys) can be represented by the equation N = Nv = np·exp(-b/ΔTα), based on the Weibull's distribution of the size of nucleation sites.
The study presents the results of research on the development of composite zones in castings based on the intermetallic phase of Ni3Al. Composite zones were obtained by placing packets with substrates for the reaction of titanium carbide in a foundry mould. To provide a variable carbides content in the composite zone, two compositions of the packets were prepared. The first packet contained only substrates for the reaction of TiC synthesis; the second one also contained a filler. The resulting composite zones in castings were examined for the filler effect on changes in the volume fraction, size and morphology of carbides in the zone. In addition, the effect of filler on the mechanical properties of the zone was verified, observing changes of Vickers hardness in this area. It was found that the presence of filler in the composition of the packet for synthesis reduced the content of carbides, as well as their size and morphology. Lower surface content of carbides reduced hardness of the zone, which enabled smooth control of the mechanical properties. At the same time, the use of the selected filler did not disturb the course of the TiC carbide synthesis.
A eutectic reaction is a basic liquid-solid transformation, which can be used in the fabrication of high-strength in situ composites. In this study an attempt was made to ensure directional solidification of Fe-C-V alloy with hypereutectic microstructure. In this alloy, the crystallisation of regular fibrous eutectic and primary carbides with the shape of non-faceted dendrites takes place. According to the data given in technical literature, this type of eutectic is suitable for the fabrication of in-situ composites, owing to the fact that a flat solidification front is formed accompanied by the presence of two phases, where one of the phases can crystallise in the form of elongated fibres. In the present study an attempt was also made to produce directionally solidifying vanadium eutectic using an apparatus with a very high temperature gradient amounting to 380 W/cm at a rate of 3 mm/h. Alloy microstructure was examined in both the initial state and after directional solidification. It was demonstrated that the resulting microstructure is of a non-homogeneous character, and the process of directional solidification leads to an oriented arrangement of both the eutectic fibres and primary carbides.
The present research was conducted on thin-walled castings with 5 mm wall thicknesses. This study addresses the effect of the influence of different master alloys, namely: (1) Al-5%Ti-1%B, (2) Al-5%Ti and (3) Al-3%B, respectively on the structure and the degree of undercooling (ΔTα = Tα-Tmin, where Tα - the equilibrium solidification temperature, Tmin - the minimum temperature at the beginning of α(Al) solidification) of an Al-Cu alloy. The process of fading has been investigated at different times spent on the refinement treatment ie. from 3, 20, 45 and 90 minutes respectively, from the dissolution of master alloys. A thermal analysis was performed (using a type-S thermocouple) to determine cooling curves. The degree of undercooling and recalescence were determined from cooling and solidification curves, whereas macrostructure characteristics were conducted based on a metallographic examination. The fading effect of the refinement of the primary structure is accompanied by a significant change in the number (dimension) of primary grains, which is strongly correlated to solidification parameters, determined by thermal analysis. In addition to that, the analysis of grain refinement stability has been shown with relation to different grain refinements and initial titanium concentration in Al-Cu base alloy. Finally, it has been shown that the refinement process of the primary structure is unstable and requires strict metallurgical control.
The aim of this paper was to attain defect free, pure copper castings with the highest possible electrical conductivity. In this connection, the effect of magnesium additives on the structure, the degree of undercooling (ΔTα = Tα-Tmin, where Tα – the equilibrium solidification temperature, Tmin – the minimum temperature at the beginning of solidification), electrical conductivity, and the oxygen concentration of pure copper castings have been studied. The two magnesium doses have been investigated; namely 0.1 wt.% and 0.2 wt.%. A thermal analysis was performed (using a type-S thermocouple) to determine the cooling curves. The degree of undercooling and recalescence were determined from the cooling and solidification curves, whereas the macrostructure characteristics were conducted based on a metallographic examination. It has been shown that the reaction of Mg causes solidification to transform from exogenous to endogenous. Finally, the results of electrical conductivity have been shown as well as the oxygen concentration for the used Mg additives.