Movement is one of the most spectacular phenomena involving glaciers. Deter- mining glacier surface velocity is now a routine aspect of glaciological studies. These are geodetic methods, especially satellite positioning, that most frequently is applied in such work. Using the Hans Glacier (SW Spitsbergen) as an example, the presented paper is an attempt at defining the time resolution limit of changes in the velocity determined using GPS positioning technology. A test network was established in the area of the examined glacier in order to define the size and variability of the main satellite positioning biases as well as to define their impact on determining position and the calculated velocity. A discussion relating to achieved accuracy (differentiated from measurement precision) for baselines of a length of several kilometres in the high latitudes has also been presented.
The paper deals with large-scale crustal deformation due to hydrological surface loads and its influence on seasonal variation of GPS estimated heights. The research was concentrated on the area of Poland. The deformation caused by continental water storage has been computed on the basis of WaterGAP Hydrological Model data by applying convolution of water masses with appropriate Green’s function. Obtained site displacements were compared with height changes estimated from GPS observations using the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method. Long time series of the solutions for 4 stations were used for evaluation of surface loading phenomena. Good agreement both in amplitude and phase was found, however some discrepancies remain which are assigned to single point positioning technique deficiencies. Annual repeatability of water cycle and demanding procedure for computing site displacements for each site, allowed to develop a simple model for Poland which could be applied to remove (or highly reduce) seasonal hydrological signal from time series of GPS solutions.